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Natalia Sokovikova

Russian dance as means of development for children of pre-school age.

Sokovikova, Natalia: "Russian dance as means of development for children of pre-school age", 16th International Congress on Dance Research, Corfu, Greece, 30/10-3/11, 2002.

The revolution and the civil war which have occurred in the beginning of 20th century, and establishment of an "international" violence on many tens of years have suspended the development of national art, including music and dancing. Each nation has the culture, the riches and a variety, the it speaks about a level of national development. Development of Russian dance is closely connected to development of songs and musical art of the nation, developing, they enriched each other during all history. Each new epoch, political, religious conditions were reflected in development of national creativity. Accordingly, and our ancestors expressed various emotional conditions not only in sounds but also through plastic and rhythmic movements in musical, of songs and dancing creativity.

The movements subordinated to a rhythm, have caused dancing. In the form of dancing were solo and mass. To belonging to mass dancings: dancings-games, and quadrille, "shestery" (the six), "semery" (the seven), "vosmery" (the eight) and "lancy". T. S. Tkachenko considers, as "shestery", "semery", "vosmery" and "metelitca" (a blizzard) off a version of a quadrille. (1977, with 9). Dancings, as well as the Russian dialects, had set of versions, and even in names were visible dialect to feature: a quadrille - "kadrieshka", "kadrilka", and "khorovod" (or a round dance) - "karagod".

Dancings-games were the most ancient kind of dancings in Russia. In quality of an example it is possible give to the dancing-games: "ah we millet sowing", "yar-hop clover, linen". The standard form of these dancings abounds numerous local events (Bahrushin Y. A. 1977. with 7). These dancings displayed labour processes and were executed strictly in the certain season. The solo Russian national dancings basically share on three kinds: single, pair which were executed for the second day after wedding by the groom and the bride, "pereplyas" (competitive), improvisatory-graphic. One of specific versions of Russian dancing, is "pereplyas". In "pereplyas" might participate both pair of soloists, and one soloist might compete with different dancers on the single in turn, or with group dancers. In "pereplyas" might participate the mans only. It were some kind of competitions, tournaments and even marathons, up to a victory of one of dancing. Except for the high masterly skill, dancing it was necessary to have self-control and to not give in on jokes of spectators, which task was to make laugh for dancer, thus to remove him from participation in game-competitions.

The single happening of improvised-graphic dancing, was usually executed by the girl, this dancing should not be an illustration songs, but express internal experienced of the performer. As magnificent illustration of such dance Russian is dance the composed K. J. Golejzovsky on P. I. Chajkovskogo's music may serve. Improvisation was characteristic for all kinds of Russian dancing. To the most ancient the pagan dancings is dancings of hunting, which had distribution on the north-east of Russia; in the Yaroslavl and Novgorod provinces, and as the ritual pagan dancings devoted to various gods of the richest pantheon of ancient Slavic peoples. Movements plastic, uninterrupte were executed under lyrical music or only singing in the circular dances ( "khorovod" ). The dance "khorovod", as had various pronunciations "karagod", "karakhot", "kanitel" etc., in different districts had the features too. Russian dance "khorovod" is inseparable from Russian songs. The song has left traces on character style of dance, having filled dance by the contents, emotional expressiveness.

Many of ancient dancings and dances were adapted to christian religion and have reached up to now, such as "on Tpoitca" (Theophany) and "on Kupaly" (birth off John the Baptist) round-dances, on Christmas and "maslenica" (carnival) in grotesque disguised dancings. If in solar round-dances there was a power association, which lifted the national spirit and promoted national unity an accessory to the certain group, sense of taking place on the place, what particle of world creation and mutual in love, in dancings individuality was shown, personal talent and dissimilarity. This dissimilarity as only national feature was shown in dances and games with a bear at northern slavic. A. F. Nekrylova in the book "The Russian national city holidays" banishing an Adamiy Olenariy, amusements and shows, the end of the 19th and the beginning 20th century refers, she writes that in the reports in Golshting the embassy 1636 Oleariy describes Russian dancings with bears (1988, p. 40). Here it is possible to see echoes totems a cult.

Christian Russia has left to us the richest songes and musical heritage as forms cultural-ceremonial traditions and professional art. National traditions were carefully kept and studied, processed and received new scenic life. Only P. I. Chajkovsky has written down fifty Russian national songs, not repeating melodies, written earlier by the first Russian composer and researcher M.I.Glinka. The history has kept names of researchers and historians of Russian dancing and musical creativity: S.T.Aksakov (1886); M.Voloshin, (1984); (1959); A.F.Gil'ferding (1872); S.N.Hudekov, I.V.Kirievsky (1913); J.A.Bahrushin (1977); V.V.Andreev, P.V.Shejn (1909), M.E.Pjatnitsky, (1877), N.P.Osipov, (1927), Dal V. I., Onchukov N. E., Rybnikov P. N., Snegirev I. M. We find mentions of Russian dance in historical and publicistic reviews: V.N.Vsevolodsky (1913); And A.Gozenpud (1959); V. V. Kallash, and N.E. Efros (1914); and Oleary (1870); A.S. Famintsin (1889); N.V.Gogol (1952), J. Shtelin (1935), M. Plekhanov.

"The music and dance, this old tested religious-cultural means for translating emotional chaos in the new condition for soul. But the essence here is not in dance, but in rhythm: the emotional chaos coming from the broken balance, and their displays in the person, may be made out and understood, when the person again will seize all rhythms and numerical ratio, by which his body is formed. For this purpose all consciousness should weak-willed be given for spirit of music. But comprehension of organic rhythms inside itself also is dance. Therefore I name dance by the enormous factor of social culture. " Voloshin M. A. (with 398-399).

As difference off aesthetics of the majority of the West-European dances, the aesthetic installations of Russian national dancing produced on centuries, were the base to creation of Russian national dancing art. These installations have the following positions. "All kinds of solo dancings and as dancings-games, the hunting or the military dancings had the contents, that is a dramaturgic basis. Frequently this basis was very primitive, as, for example, in "pereplyas" (competition), but there was she everywhere. Mechanical performance of dancing of spectators did not admit, who highly estimated individuality dancing, named "vykhodka" (entrance). (the First ballet performances in Europe as consist from «entrees» though it is translated entrances, but in Russia is perceived as the first entrance on a stage.) At last, one more of requirements of Russian people to dancing art - expressiveness of performance which was considered perfect only in the event that each movement in dancing was clear and reached the spectator." (J.A.Bahrushin. 1957.s, 11).

Thus we may draw a conclusion, that the contents and the realistic form of its statement in Russian dancings was expressed by means of dancing movements through individuality, actor's expressiveness and unique is emotional-moving responsiveness of dancers, that it was not possible having, what in high performing technique only. These is those installations, on which the Russian national dancing culture to developed. Based on the statement by T. A. Stefanovska, which, supporting othe pinion of E.Dashkova, Thick, M.F.Dostoevsky, A.V. Lunacharsky about education of children "off bright emotional image", considered that such examples is enough in traditions of our national culture. And as T.A.Stefanovska developing well-known idea of K.D.Ushinskogo's: "The pedagogic not the science, but art", writes in article "The pedagogic - a science and art" that one of means of education is art, which carries the spiritual values submitted in art symbols and bright emotional images. Art as the figurative model of human ability to live enables the child to carry out self-development.

Therefore in the work we would like to pay attention to a problem concerning development of emotional conditions at children of preschool and younger school age. And mainly on a problem of emotional - musical responsiveness and emotional-music hearing at children in Russian dance. Occurred in a society events ("perestroyka") have induced to direct attention of teachers to formation of emotionally steady, socially adapted creative person, capable is adequate to perceive stress of a present welfare situation. The enormous stream of the uncontrollable information, including rhythmic and musical, carries in itself destroying for mentality and for national musical responsiveness. Hence, there is a problem of necessity of creation of conditions for national-emotional well-being of children of pre-school and school age. Now we may observe at preschool children and children of younger school age - decrease of an emotional tone, attenuation of emotional responsiveness on national music and dances, reduction of interests to spiritual life, culture, art, and sometimes in aggressive forms. Though we know, that the spiritual sphere of the individuality of the child, develops and formed at preschool age main.

In preschool establishments rather recently began to enter the folklore, as something additional to aesthetic education of children. But it should be the environment constant environment children's soul: with toys, games, fairy tales, a sacred music, an interior, clothes, all that it is possible to name national culture. Cells of a children's brain very sensitive to external signals as systems of reactions are in a condition of development. The child easily and brightly perceives and fixes that information which can be seen, heard, and perceived in memory. Formation acoustical irritant is shown in musical intoning and musical responsiveness of the child, and the visual irritant allow to keep visions images. False images and alien codes will generate false characters - it there no will be Russian children.

At early steps of development of a children's organism the congenital or initial mechanism of musical responsiveness is in process of formation, and develops individually, in process of education of a conditioned reflex. V.M. Behterev considers, that necessary time before those time communications between are formed outwardly and kinetic irritant which enable the child to simulate actions another's. Continuing researches of V.M. Behterev, N.M. ShChelovanov has established, that the motives giving to the child an initial push to rhythmic imitation, lay, obviously, in his dialogue with adults, in that emotional contact which is established with environmental people already from three-monthly age. The musical environment from the cradle, dialogue and joint activity which may occur not only in a unison, but also in contrapoint to music, may create necessary ground for development of imitation in connection with the musical environment. In long immersing in the musical environment creates preconditions not only for development congenital feeling of a rhythm, but also develops intelligence by means of recognition, and mastering all of becoming complicated musical language which is structured in musical forms, has lad-harmonious logic or harmony and carries the certain information on people. If the musical environment of another's is aggressive and primitive, she may impose the print on development of negative qualities; such as aggression, cruelty, irreconcilability, sports dexterity, resourcefulness; such qualities were brought up in military dancings primitive peoples. Immersing of the child in the primitive musical environment, limits his emotional responsiveness, simplifies mechanisms of emotional displays.

Switching thought occurs at that moment when before the child there is a new real, natural or created, sound image, which through child passes: itself sees him and hears, and stored, as it is necessary to react to him. For example, if we walk in a holiday on city, and sounds reach us dances music, marches or disco, we are to a greater or lesser extent subordinated to a rhythm of a sound stream. And it is especial in children, at whom is not present some more supervising and detaining to self-checking. The earliest example - when yet not able to go the thoracal child, standing on stemnode of mum and supported by her, at sounds of music begins in a tact, rhythmically to squat or turn the case and the head. In him the congenital reflex wakes up.

E.A.Arkin bu to results an interesting example of display of emotional responsiveness on national music from supervision prof. Sklifasofsky. In his clinic laid music-formed dance "polka" for wound man at Poles: the professor had an opportunity to watch fluctuations of a blood pressure in its cranial box, and define, that for each composer, and even for each play there was a rush of blood, the blood pressure in brain vessels, and, that than all is more remarkable, the patriotic feeling "polka" was shown in sharp increase of a blood pressure every time when played at her the most the play of Veniavsky. (E.A.Arkin.1925, with 91). But if to assume, what each national music has the certain codes, and the Polish music, as is known, is grandiose majestic, solemnly raised, with the strongly pronounced external figure unstable trilobate by a rhythm of mazourkas and polonaises in which we feel spirit of the nation; thus extraordinary natural talent and refinement of Poles, both beauty of the ground Polish and all this we hear in whims and arrogance of women, and thoughtless customs of men, both in national music, and in classical, for example at Shopin. Hence, in the Polish music is possible to assume presence of codes which the sounding influences patriotic feelings, feeling of advantage and pride and they coincide with genetic codes further it is possible to assume that patriotism, as genetic property, is brought up by the musical environment.

English of aesthetics D. Kuk considering music as language bearing very much frequently decoded the contents, made, in his opinion, in a number of melodic images, in major and in minor accords, in chromatism. Thus, it agrees to theory of evolution: value of art and his function " not aesthetic on the nature. Those are tasks of musical and dancing education in her context: moral perfection, maintenance of a healthy exit of emotions, psychological unloading. From sounding of internal music, physiological, chemical activity of the muscular device and, hence, bearing, and as also intellectual - emotional sphere, so both external plastics and internal shape appropriate to her depends also.S.N.Hudjakov in the second book of the fundamental five-volume work "The story of Dances" informs that in the message over sacred Vasily Great writes: "Love of occupation of angels on heavens is dance". Sacred Vasily to name "happy and blessed", those who may imitate them on Earth.

These phenomena were noticed by B. Spinoza, who saw that essence of emotional displays and the affects in their corporal displays. "Every strong feeling is accompanied always by certain changes in our physical organization, in our external shape" (E.A. Arkin. 1925. with 86). The need of the spiritualized person to express the congenital musical responsiveness and virtuosity in dancing movements is satisfied key stimulus. For realization of satisfaction of emotional need presence the time and the age is necessary. Task of the teacher to learn the child to listen to the high-grade music. You see at the child able constantly to listen to music: the creative idea which gives a start to carry out alive connection emotional "perception-reaction " with musical rate and a rhythm.

We would like to start consideration of this question with definition of emotions and their classifications. In the psychological dictionary under V.P.Zinchenko edition of 1999 we find definition to emotions: "The emotions is a special class of mental processes and the conditions connected to instincts, needs, motivations reflecting in the form of direct experienced of the importance of the phenomena and situations influencing on the individual for his realization to ability to live. Nikiforov A.S. in one of the works "The emotion in ours live" the emotions defines in following: " It the generalized sensitive reactions which arise in reply to the various signals which are starting with an environment and starting with own bodies and fabrics, necessarily attracting certain changes in a physiological condition of body behind self. B.I. Dodonov allocates the following classification of emotional experiences: Positive emotions carry in themselves a positive estimation of the certain object. Induces to preservation of an existing state of affairs. Negative emotions - a negative estimation of the phenomenon. The supreme feelings arise on the basis of satisfaction of spiritual needs. The lowest feelings with dissatisfaction of those or other physiological needs connected.

Sthenic emotions raise ability to live of an organism (pleasure), asthenic brake ability to live, lower energy of the subject. Izart allocates the following positive emotional conditions: Interest - promotes development of skills, skills, purchase of knowledge, motivation of training.The pleasure - is connected to an opportunity, which completely to satisfy actual need, the probability of that up to this time was uncertain. In works of various psychologists, we may meet the following stages of development of emotional conditions at children of preschool age: interest at the beginning at the child has not any character. Only in a consequence, having ratified, interest may become need. With age the interest at children to become steadier. Interest develops into attachment and induces the child to overcoming obstacles connected with training. The pleasure is expressed and learns from early age, from an infancy. The pleasure helps to come into interpersonal contacts, and increases to motivation. Putting the child in the certain situations of it it is easy, that to start feeling of pleasure. Unfortunately, not always, and not only positive emotions in an infancy experience. Thus, to the beginning of younger school age the child may experience to express the basic emotions. The child emotionally reacts off directly perceives.

Emotions of the child develop in activity and depend on the contents and structure of this activity. Together with development of interest the emotional condition becomes more substantial. At many children positive emotional conditions increase efficiency of carried out activity. And negative emotional conditions create the suppressed mood. For increase of children's emotions it is necessary to reveal the basis of their origin laying in activity of the child under which influence he begins to comprehend an event in a new fashion. Hence, in education of the child to achieve compatibility of the validity and the correct relation to it. Proceeding from told, we offer to choose Russian dance, as one of means for development of an emotional condition at children of preschool and younger school age. As Russian music which accompanies with dance, should cause emotional responsiveness which is incorporated in generalized the mechanism in children. S.N. Hudekov who has quoted of Plotin in the five-volume work "The story of dances" (1913): "Dance to base in a nature of the person, expressing special emotional condition".

Competently constructed the lesson enables the child to receive a charge of positive energy, a number of useful positive emotional experiences, to feel "pleasure of muscle", as dance is one of the basic means of birth and expression of emotions. At performance of dancing movements on rhythmical major music the child for a while forgets about those children's frustration which might irritating him. Russian dance - bright, cheerful, colourful, sometimes lyrical, but always the substantial creation of people being emotional display of its life, character of feelings and ideas, aesthetic views and understanding of beauty of world around. Truthfulness, concreteness, artistry of dancing images is defined by their contents and dancing lexicon, organic connection with a melody its character, a rhythm and rate. Certainly, if the Russian child, from birth does not hear national music, generalized mechanism him is not advanced, emotional and the audition for music is suppressed, in this child the feeling of a national belonging, healthy patriotism and creative abilities which are shown at the advanced emotional hearing does not develop.

To bring up these qualities at lessons of Russian dance to the teacher it is necessary to develop tactics of training. For achievement of the overall objective it should taking place alternating number of stages, for solving the following tasks:

- To develop responsiveness on aesthetic qualities of a sound;

- To form creative type of comprehension of a subjective reality at which familiarizing to author's plan is supplemented with independent research of this sphere;

- To make accessible aesthetic sense of musical and dancing product;

Is consecutive to deepen, strengthen, improve aesthetic sensitivity and emotional hearing.

- To develop to develop feeling of a rhythm and coordination.

How to realize all this in practice? First, each movement is preceded with music. The musical material for support of dance at all stages of dances-musical education, including the earliest, should differ original expressiveness. At a choice of products it is necessary to take into account, that perception of a piece of music in all riches of its expressive shades, the phenomenon exclusive. Therefore, not going on a way of conscious simplification of repertoir, it is necessary to select such products which, being are accessible even to partial understanding, would contain preconditions to perfection of abilities of deeper penetration into music.

Major criterion to which products of music unconditionally should satisfy "true expressiveness". Second, in the centre of all process music-dancing education there should be a pedagogical experience and psychology-pedagogical education of the teacher. It is an "alpha and omega" of music education of the dancer of national dances. All kinds of activity: movement under music, solfeggio, improvisation, singing, hearing of music " no less, than the analysis accompanying them, should be always aimed at development of aesthetic perception and responsiveness, aesthetic sensitivity a sound and the appropriate movement which was caused with this sound. Thirdly, the methods used by the teacher of Russian dance in work, should not distract attention of pupils from aesthetic qualities of music, concentrating him on non-music the moments. His speech should not frighten pupils of a falsetto and no to be perceived as a "penalty heavenly". Language of the dancing-master should be descriptive, but not interpreting. His task is "to highlight music-aesthetic sense of dancing product, but to not become at wall between pupils and music. It is necessary to remember about improvised features of Russian dance.

The unique nature and value of musical and dancing art are, that it is capable to represent human feelings and experiences by means of inherent to him from birth of aesthetic properties. Hence, is unique means of their cognition; formation of responsiveness on aesthetic properties of national music "a key to knowledge of a subjective reality and a priority task of musical and dancing education and education of younger schoolboys.


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Natalia V. Sokovikova



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