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Elizabeth Thetoky

Traditional dances and costumes of Corfuas described by travellers of the 19th century.

Thetoky, Elizabeth: "Traditional dances and costumes of Corfu as described by travellers of the 19th century", 16th International Congress on Dance Research, Corfu, Greece, 30/10-3/11, 2002.

Prof. Alkis Raftis, President of CID, suggested a research on all that has been written about dances and folkcostumes by the various travellers visiting the Ionian Islands during the 19th century. Time limit has obliged me to restrict the research only on the isle of Corfu and its dependant isle of Paxos. I wish to thank the following who helped me: Prof. Aleko Damaskino who edited the entire text, Prof. Klaus Knopp who translated from German texts, Mr. Andrea Papadato who translated from French texts.

The Ionian Islands were governed by the Venetians during four centuries until Venice fell to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797. Headquarters were established during all those centuries on the isle of Corfu and the other major Ionian Islands. From 1797 to 1799 the islands were occupied by the FrenchRepublic. On March 3rd 1799 the French authorities, after a siege which lasted 4 months, were obliged to surrender to the Russians and Turks. One of the first official acts of the Russians was the reinstatement of a Greek Archbishop.

Following the treaty of Constantinople between Russia and Turkey a semi-independent State of the Seven Ionian Islands, the so-called SeptinsularState, was constituted in 1800. It was the first Greek state to be established after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The new state was placed under the nominal suzerainty of the Sultan and under the effective protectorate of the czar. Its first president was Count Spyridon-George Theotokis (1722-1803) who appointed Count John Capodistrias, as his Secretary of State.

After the Treaty of Tilsit between the emperor Napoleon and the Czar Alexander, the French reoccupied Corfu until the first fall of Napoleon in 1814. The French were succeeded , under the Treaty of Paris by the British. The Ionian Islands came under the British Protectorate. For the next 50 years the Islands were governed by ten successive Lord High Commissioners and finally in 1864 were incorporated with the Kingdom of Greece. Many travellers from various European countries described both the beauty of the island and the customs of the islanders.

Edward Gifford between the 22nd and 29th of January 1836 when visiting Corfu describes as follows: "Beautiful! I exclaimed, when, early next morning, I saw Corfu, and my exclamation was in the superlative. – Most beautiful! – when I became better acquainted with it. The roadstead or rather the bay, is completely land-locked; surrounded on three sides by the island, and on the other by the main land, with only narrow exits to the north and the south, not visible from the harbour itself. A little allowance must be made for one who, though he has happened to visit the four quarters of the world, and very lately to have seen the Peak of Teneriffe and the West Indies – had formed his habitual ideas of rural beauty on the banks of the Isis- and of scenic grandeur from the woods of Cliefden; but with this proviso, I will venture to say, that the view which the morning unfolded was delightful. The opposite coast of Albania; the fortification of the island of Vido; the citadel of Corfu, built on two precipitous rocks running out into the sea; the palace of the Lord High Commissioner; the town itself, and the distant mountains of the island, form a splendid panoramic view.

We landed in the ditch of the citadel, from which a flight of steps lead to the Esplanade or Parade Ground; and this again was another almost fairy scene. Upon its verge stands the Palace of white Maltese stone, flanked by the two handsome gates of St. Michael and St. George, each of which frames, as it were, within its columns, a lovely picture of the snow-capped mountains of Albania glittering in the glorious sunshine".

Edward Lear in April 1848 mentions: “I wish I could give you any idea of the beauty of this island – it really is a Paradise. The chief charm is the great variety of the scenery, and the extreme greenness of every place. Such magnificent groves of olives I never saw - they are gigantic.” By Venetian order for every planted olive tree the reward was a “zecchini” (golden sovereign). Thus the island was soon covered by these most precious and lovely trees. The descriptions of Corfu’s beauty - written by Alexander Freiherr von Warsberg - were so enchanting that they greatly influenced Empress Elisabeth of Austria to visit Corfu and thereafter to settle for various periods in the Achileion which she had built.

Edward Gifford whose description of Corfu I mentioned at the beginning   wrote in 1837 the following about dance: “ we wandered about this lovely spot for several hours, at last the approach of evening compelled us to think of our return, during which we fell in with a party of Greeks, engaged in dancing to the music of their own voices – a monotonous sing-song- while the dance was equally tame and formal, being no more than a step forward, with a sort of step backwards, all holding hands in a circle. Their dresses however, and the whole scene, were to us new and striking, and we loitered sometime longer looking at them, not at all eager to change the animated picture for the dullness and discomfort of our “Locanda”, where we were unable to have any fire even a brazier, and could only keep out the cold, which we felt rather sharply in the evenings, by putting on our great coats and cloaks".

H.W. Williams mentions in his travels descriptions in 1820 the following: "A few days after our arrival, we had a splendid ball and supper at the palace, the ladies were numerous and well dressed, but in the French taste. At a former ball, or entertainment, which I believe was the first given by the Governor, the ladies were attired in Greek dresses, and must have been infinitely more interesting in their appearance".

I found a description in Italian made in 1823 by a certain N.N.: "The rural inhabitants have a cheerful character, very inclined to amusements and they delight in wearing expensive clothes and ornaments, with which they participate at many religious festivities, where together with natives from Suli, Parga, Idra and S. Maura and other nearby villages, they form an entity of vivid colours, very characteristic of their wonderful condition. requent balls are held in the town, the carnival is animated and the society wears the most fashionable Italian costumes. The Theatre in general is pleasant and starts in October with Italian Opera and remains till spring when the fasting period ends all follies!"

Frances Maclellan in her Sketches of Corfu, about 1835 also mentions Analipsis and writes as follows: “The Festa of the Ascension, or Analipsi, takes place on the ninth of this month. Of course, we failed not to see it, and a merry and motley group in truth it was. I was sorry to see the green loveliness of my favourite retreat destroyed, yet chided my grief as selfish; for sure the happiness of the multitude is of more importance than the quiet of one. Here was a tray covered with biscuits and sweetmeats, which the owner was loudly commending to his customers; there a man sold the light country wines for three pence or four pence per bottle; a little farther on was a group of English soldiers, enjoying their rations in company ; and close by, a Greek family singing and smoking round a table. Lambs were roasted whole at wood fires, made on the ground, and when cooked, the owner stuck them up aloft on a stick for sale; the boys brought their oboli, and cut their slice, - the first comer being of course, the first chooser. Fine scrambling there was, and such shrieking, singing, and chattering, as I never heard before; but no quarrelling or fighting. Signor Palatiano says, that this seldom occurs, except for jealousy; love being here the predominant passion.

In one place a wretched fiddler was scraping his kit, while a dozen men round him, one occasionally drawing aside, and jumping an extraordinary height. Harry says, that the heights of their dexterity consists in giving the lookers on as many kicks as they can; but this I do not quite believe. A little farther on, under the olives, another group of men and women were dancing the Romaika. The spectators climbed the trees to look at them, and the red caps, peering through the dark leaves, looked very pretty. These dancers stood in a circle, the men on one side, the women on the other, each person held one end of a handkerchief and his neighbour the other. They walked round very slowly for some time to a low monotonous tune, with grave faces, and eyes fixed on the ground: then the measure changed; the man and woman who joined in the circle raised their hands, and the rest passed under, wreathing about as we do in “thread my needle.” I believe it is derived from the old story of Ariadne. The women were elegantly dressed, with a number of chains round their necks, and some of them wore miniatures, - not as we should do, as mementoes, but merely as ornaments, for they buy them at random. I was chiefly struck by the melancholy statement of their faces. They were all married, for the unmarried women never appear at these festas."

James Skinner on May 29, 1849 writes about Analipsis as follows: "...About two miles out of town is a beautiful place called Ascension, it is a pretty village, consisting of but few cottages, but a beautiful olive grove on a cliff just above the blue sea. To this place on Ascension day all the Greek peasants repair, and spend the day in roasting lambs whole (I saw about ten at one fire!) eating, drinking and fiddling. The country women, some coming from immense distances, appear, in the gayest costumes, and women who on other days have to work in the fields and wear the coarsest clothing, on this day arranged in the richest Genoa-embroidered velvet and real gold ornaments. Several of them had no less than six or seven heavy gold chains round their necks and their fingers covered with rings some as large as a half-crown piece, roughly set, but very fine stones. They would scorn to wear imitations and work hard and save all to buy this “Festa” finery. The richest dresses look the oldest, and, I am told have been handed down from generation to generation as heirlooms. The prettiest and most amusing sight was to see the peasants dance the “Romaika’. They stand in a circle, the men on one side and the women on the other, each person holding the end of a handkerchief, by which means the circle is united. Then they dance round very slowly to the music of two fiddles, the fiddlers standing in the centre of the circle, which play a very monotonous tune, and both dancers and fiddlers look as intensely grave as though it were the most important moment of their lives, and perhaps their gravity is the most ridiculous part of the scene. Everybody in Corfou goes out to see the “Festa”, some in boats and some in carriages, and certainly it is a pretty sight."

Edward Lear, painter and traveller, in July 1856 spent a while living in Analipsi and he writes: "the house is quite close to all spots I most want to work at. I am in great spirits and this bit of luck….In one minute I am within all those fine olive walks you have heard so much of. I have some idea of devoting a good bit of time to illustrating this little promontory, for it is full of interest, as the old city of Analipsis was built on it, & ancient coins & marbles are still found. You ask about the costumes at the Analipsis fete – there were lots of costumes, but such crowds of people you could see nothing; perhaps above 1000 soldiers - & 3 or 4000 of the Corfu gentry in hats and coats; so costume was scarcely visible"

Alexander Freiherr von Warsberg who was the Austrian Consul at the time of Empress Elisabeth (Sissi) tells us that on Ascension Day of May 18, 1871, he took part at the Mass in the Analipsis church. He mentions that already in the Eve of the Feast starts the illumination with lamps and candles hanging from various olive trees. He also describes all the rowing and sailing boats freshly painted and decorated with leaves and flowers arriving in the bay under MountElias and depicts the singing procession climbing up Ascension Hill.

He writes as follows about the dances: "People are dancing everywhere. Even in the most secluded valleys and remotest woodland spots. I came across fiddlers surrounded by dancing women. But the most outstanding and most frequented dancing place is located on the bare hilltop from where the eyes roam over the cape’s steep precipice across to the Albanian coast line with its many bays under the triple- terraced mountain range. And if you turn around you will behold the gardens of Ascensione, the bay of Castrades with its “via marina”, the twin peaks of the fortress, the houses of Corfu town, the outlet into the Adriatic, the gigantic mountain ridge forming the island’s north, and on top of all this the long stretched crest of Monte San Salvatore with the two horns marking its end. A magnificent setting, the like of which cannot be found in any place of the world, as it compares only to fantasies out of a children’s fairy tale. These descriptions enticed Empress Elisabeth to visit Corfu and later to have the Achillion built for her frequent sojourns."

Alexander Freiherr von Warsberg continues his descriptions as follows: "The onlookers form a wide circle. The centre is occupied by a fiddler who as he follows the movements of the dance never loses the beat. He is the leader of music and dance. It is the oldest custom of the Greek art of dancing, as is confirmed by ancient vase decorations which usually depict musicians and dancers as one and the same person. Generally, everything you observe during this popular feast reminds you of those ancient representations, especially the bold jumping of the men which seems to come right out of bacchian processions, while women were likewise alloted a more guided and accompanying role. Men and women dance in separate formations on the bare lawn. It is the men who actually lead the dance. They are always outnumbered by the women. I never saw more than three to a maximum of five male dancers at a time. The women form behind them into a closely linked row which I occasionally saw growing up to number as many as thirty or forty dancers. Three to four dancers standing beside each other will form the head of the procession, and the rest will gradually join them up. When placed side by side, they won’t hold each other, when placed behind each other though they will be linked by colourful silk handkerchiefs. This will prevent any risk of the circle getting scrambled or mixed up and ensure a smooth and flexibly rounded course. With their arms all the while akimbo, dancers make four steps ahead and then, in a slower motion, two steps back, thus giving the impression of a permanent up and down, a swaying to and fro, an assaulting and retreating almost like the waves of a not exceedingly rough sea. The scene has nothing enrapturing that could possibly carry away the spectator, but rather evokes the eternal manifestation of nature. And in fact, the dance keeps going on for hours on end, always back and forth, limited to the same rather small place, with the music always repeating the same beat and melody. I never noticed any of the women dancers look at the lead dancer or the onlookers. They seem completely absorbed in themselves with serious faces and their eyes chastely cast down. Nobody, not even the lead dancer, did ever smile. It is definitely a sort of cult that is going on. In case the lead dancer decides to link himself to the women’s circle, it is done using a silk handkerchief. There is never a direct contact of hands, giving a note of utmost decency. I have never seen any other folkdance of comparable modesty and grace. Not one of the many women taking part was plump. The essence of the dance lies in the unobtrusive flexibility and suppleness with which the upper part of the body complies with any swerving of the circle. Generally speaking, folkdancing in the Mediterranean relies more on the body movement from the waist up than on steps, at least as far as the women’s part is concerned. The actual dancing as we understand it in terms of doing a lot of footwork, is also in Corfu the incumbency of menfolk. At times when the endless tide of the procession and the persisting music has lasted long enough to light their fire, dancers may come up with performances almost daring as daring as those you can see in our ballets. Jumps and entrechats follow each other and intermingle with a dexterity that outdoes the best tradition of our royal theatres. So "They danced floating over the all-nourishing earth / With frequently changing poise" making you exclaim with Ulysses, the ”universally praised hero of Alkinoos, the mightiest King”: "Look, you boast the most excellent dancers on earth / And you ascertain the fame! The sight fills me with amazement".

All this goes on in stockings. Before performing his feats, the dancer will slip off the open type pair of shoes that is worn by all men of the region and place them right in the middle of the circle. His apparel befits him as if it had been created specially for the purpose by a theatrical tailor, long white stockings, short blue knickerbockers, heavy red-yellow silk scarf worn as a belt or sometimes in coquetry hanging down carelessly with an abundance of picturesque plaits, snow-white shirt, dark blue linen jacket, small ribboned straw hat.

Women’s costumes change according to what region of the island they come from. The most decorative is to be found at Lefkimi in the extreme south: gold embroidered red velvet jacket over a silver cuirassed bodice with silver balls chained to it, dark violet, dark blue or dark purple silk skirt delicately pleated and goffered in the fashion as sometimes depicted on ancient vases thus carrying on the classical tradition, red velvet shoes with silver embroidery and big buckles on top, yellow veils enshrouding the hair just as Nausicaa used to wear (Odyssey VI100) richly lined with laces, tresses bound with red ribbons and fixed with huge golden needles to the right side of the brow, and finally broad golden finger rings. Others will wear instead of a silver cuirass golden chains with the images of Saints attached to them. Another, simpler costume variety consists of a dark woolen dress and red or yellow lapelled and identically tied up musketeer skirt with red or white edges. The head is covered by a white cloth. This outfit is worn in the western parts of the island ,i.e. each region having its own speciality, costumes present a great variety. Among them you will also find the high Greek fez from the Cyclade islands with its blue tassel coquettisly hanging down sideways over the black hair as well as the as the short, colourful and abundantly embroidered jacket from Smyrna and Mytilene, and finally from Lefkada a black dress featuring a long black men'’ skirt gathered up backwards and complete with long black veils under a stiff black bonnet very like the queens widow’s weeds in Richard III. Each costume is evidently worn with a sense of beauty devoid of vanity, as if the individual’s only heeding was to display and let people appreciate the qualities of the garment."

Nowadays Ascension is still celebrated at Analipsis. But what an Analipsi!!! The aspect has completely changed. Too much has been built, too many olive trees destroyed. There are so many cars you can hardly walk.

Edward Lear also visited other villages on the island and mentions dances and costumes. On March 5th 1856 he writes to his sister as follows: "After church last Sunday, Frank and I walked to Kalafationes - a village some miles off - and by chance we arrived there to see the dance with which all country weddings conclude; It is a very pretty sight. On a sort of rising ground, where the churches are usually built, this ceremony takes place: a long string of couples hand in hand, & close together, moving in a circle to music, & proceeded by the choregos – a man who capers and dances before them, backwards. The first couple are the bride & her mother, & all the jewels & finery they possess. The two we saw were literally covered with plates of gold, & coins threaded like necklaces about their heads and necks. Each of these dancers holds a handkerchief in one hand, which the next in order holds also; they advance three steps, & go back 2, & so by degrees get round the circle. The bride & her mother keep their eyes fixed on the ground. There were perhaps 40 coouples…."

On June 22, 1856 at 6 a.m. Edward Lear writes again to his sister from Askiteria at Nimfes: "...one day I went to a fête which was really worth seeing: the were 7 of dancers. One dance alone contained 84 women, who danced that slow circular dance, 6 of them in a row, linked on with coloured shawls to the next row. The first 6 were chosen for beauty, size, splendour of dress, or knowledge of the dance, so that sometimes a fat old lady, bending with scarlet & gold, led the procession, & all danced 3 steps on, & 2 back as gravely as if it were a funeral. This was a much better fête than the city Analipsi fête, as everybody was in costume, & there were crowds to prevent the 6 choregoi jumping as far or as high as they pleased. I can’t think why they don’t break their necks, or dissolve in a heap, for the dance often lasts 3 hours without stopping! I observed the women of one village, Agrafi, (for the villagers of one place make up a single dance to themselves), quite loaded with finery, at least the advance row: purple silk-striped full skirts; orange-striped aprons; crimson velvet vests worked with gold; rose-coloured silk under vests; heaps of chains & gold ornaments, & rings on all fingers; shoes all buckled, a headdress of white silk..."

Baron Emmanuel Theotoky, who lived in Corfu, writes in his book "Details sur Corfou" in 1826 (p. 59): "The costumes of country people resembles that of the Peloponnesian sailors. Peasant women have three: all greek remarkable, dramatic. Adorned by a personal majesty, which I couldn’t possibly describe, their body is covered but not hidden. A short coat, similar to that of a dancer’s - a buttoned bodice - and a petticoat are its basis. A mantle, an apron and some ornaments are its accessories. Some wear the belt above the hips, like the Amazones, others don’t wear any at all. Could that belt be the cestus of Venus? Some antiquaries think so. Taking great care of their hair (which sometimes they tear off at the grave of a husband, young and faithful) the majority wear them raised from all sides tied behind the head: which could be the korimvos of Diana. Others wear them after the fashion of the centaurs, above the brow, in several layers. Others yet make an annular diadem of them with which they crown themselves. In all these cases, a yellow or white mantle covers their heads, or envelops it, in the manner of Vestals, adorned by a silver headed pin, representing a bristling coq (symbol of vigilance) or a symbol of rural nature. The mantle or veil, after having lent their face an expression of admirable bashfulness, falls down to cover their bosom, and under the impulsion of a brisk walk, flows in the air, and causes an illusion of which we feel the charm, at the same time surrendering to it.

Ludwig Salvator Archduke of Austria, a cousin of Empress Elisabeth of Austria, during his sojourn from 1884 to 1885 on the island of Paxos which lies quite near the southern coast of Corfu wrote concerning costumes (page 6): "Men are usually mustached, some of them have beards. They don’t wear traditional costumes but are dressed European style, often preferring modern caps made of cloth. Only a few people still wear the old levantine Greek style blue knickerbockers and drooping cap. Women however retain some traditional features notably as regards the scarf which they use to fix with a needle above their simply braided and knotted hair up it will hang down on both temples or just backward, the latter conveying an impression of utmost grace. These scarves are mostly coloured yellowish, some of them merging into a shade of gold. Jackets and skirts are in modern fashion. Only a few older women still possess traditional costumes very similar to those worn by the Greek women of Parga in the coastal area of Albania, but since they are not worn any more they are being kept locked away in the cupboards of their homes. This costume consists of a black jacket decorated with fine gold embroidery covering the front, sleeves and elbows as well as the main seams on the back and shoulders. The jacket is left open in front disclosing a glaring red waistcoat with deep neck-line held together by a few buttons. Neck and breast are covered with a white cloth. The plain silk skirt with abundant pleats was most frequently garnet coloured. The dark yellow scarf was worn in the same way as it is today".

His description concerning dancing is the following: "The dance proceeds, handkerchief in hand, round about the violin players placed in the centre.There is no chaster impression imaginable than the monotonously singing girls with their eyes cast down and arms interlinked, held together each one by a man forming the end of the line which they are connected by means of a handkerchief. The inhabitants of the isle of Paxi have two different ways of dancing, the Corfiot and the more vivid Albanian way. The dance in which women sing and men swing is called Calamatioti, whereas the Paxi-type dance in which the man skips and jumps rather in Corfiot fashion is the more vivid one. Occasionally, the man will turn around changing the handkerchief in the process. In the Rumeico dance, women will skip as well, and its cadence is more lively and brisk. One of the men is placed in the middle while the other is skipping at the end of the spiraling circle with an alternating handkerchief. The cadence of the dance is more or less lively and many a sailor swaying under the raised handkerchief gives proof of a certain ardour in moving foot and heel. As a rule everybody is allowed two dances, one of the two dancers leading and the other following. Some are more reserved and subtle in their movements, others more rash and swift, the former being generally more appreciated. The rest of the women are sitting in a circle while men are standing and occasionally frequenting the nearby magasia" (The author means shops).

Having presented the descriptions of eight travellers during the 19th century and one Corfu citizen I will end this first part of my research by mentioning a charming traveller of the 20th century who visited Corfu in 1911, namely Sophie Atkinson (page 88): "On all the chief Sundays and on festas, there is a dance in any part of the village street that is not too steep; to its roughness the nimble-footed Greek seems indifferent. The colour is hemmed in by irregular buildings, from walls, windows and stairways of which gorgeous heads look down (I wonder if it was the Crusades who brought these Plantagenet-like coiffures north with them), while other spectators, keenly interested and critical, surround and take turns in the circle of dance.

Under the stone arcade of a bottega, fiddler and mandolinist play away at their simple melodies, and a visitor is most courteously given a chair in the best place. The dancing is kept up for hours, and if in honour of the bride, she is expected to dance all the time. The men, whose part is more exacting, frequently take rests and change places.

The dances have descended from the ancient Romaika. The woman’s part in them is always quite unchanging. United in double or quadruple procession by their gay handkerchiefs, in a species of solemn two-step, they circle the village street; a rythmic bow of colours, within which the men execute their vigorous and intricate steps. There is always one special leader of the dance, and no other man may take his place without offence. He begins alone with the women, gathering the front row of handkerchiefs in his hand and moving backwards in front of them. At first his steps are hardly more than posturings, but as they get more animated, he drops the handkerchiefs, turns round, and with arms akimbo or raised begins a series of reel or hornpipe-like steps, while other men gradually join in, till there are half a dozen or so, shuffling and bounding, generally gracefully, within the circle. And always the women move round with unchanging rhythm and eyes demurely dropped, while behind them little barefoot children join in unchecked."

And under Bridal Dances (page 169): "As spring festas are fashionable seasons for peasant weddings, bridal dances are numerous from Easter onwards; so in the large villages, if it is not a poor year, there will be a dance of some kind nearly every Sunday.The bride on these occasions is expected to dance through the program, a feat of endurance through which she is probably sustained by the eclipsing splendour of her costume. For, added to the normally elaborate and distinguished coiffure, the bride wears a massive wreath of gay ribbons, tinsel, and small varicoloured flowers; and her muslin bollia, instead od dropping in soft folds, is stiffened high above all this, and scattered with drops of gold and flowers. The fine stichery of her full white smock is hidden, under a shower of light gold ornaments, and her velvet and gold embroidered vest and jacket are the richest and newest.

(page 196): "So we climbed for about three hours and gained the head of our pass at the village of Sokraki. We took a chilly shelter meanwhile in a house over the village street, and watched the finest dancing I have seen in Corfu. The women’s dresses were rich and fine, and their rhythmic and unchanging accompaniment was all proper. But the men, the soloist always in these dances - on the rough village street, in socks or Turkish slippers - danced as I thought only professionals in a finely trained ballet could do; with flying bounds across the circle of dancing; with intricate steps and twirlings in the air; and with a perfect flexibility and lightness that one could hardly realise was quite untrained."

(page 171): "The Lefkimi women who came from the south wear bollias of orange and yellow instead of the white muslin of our district, gold embroidery all but hides the coloured velvet of their coats and vests, and their skirts are of shot silk of green and purple and blue, with the gayest and most coquettish muslin aprons. Some have six silver balls, as big as fair-sized apples, hung from the right front of their jackets, in overgrown but pleasing symbolism of buttons."

Bibliography

Atkinson, Sophie: An artist in Corfu. 1911.

Corti, Conte Egon Caesar: Elisabeth “Die seltsame Frau”. 1934.

Gifford, Edward: Short visit to the Ionian Islands and the Morea. 1837.

Lear, Edward: The Corfu years. 1988.

Maclellan, Frances: Corfu. 1835?

N.N. : Descrizione dell’ isola e citt? di Corf?. 1823.

Salvator, Ludwig Erzherzog von Oesterreich: Paxos und Antipaxos im Ionischen Meere. 1887.

Skinner, James: A memoir by the author of “Charles Louder”. 1883.

Stamatopoulos, Nondas: Old Corfu. History and culture. 1978.

Theotoky, Emmanuel baron: Details sur Corfou. 1826.

Warsberg, Alexander Freiherr von: Odysseeische Landschaften. 1878.

Williams, H.W.: Travels in Italy, Greece and the Ionian Islands. 1820.

The author

Elisabeth-Lulu J. Theotoky, graduate teacher of dance and also a choreographer, established in 1965 the first dance school in Corfu and later in 1969 the “Corfu Dance Theater.” Since then she was involved with Corfiote folklore and gathered a vast and important collection of traditional costumes from all over Greece. She has lectured at various conferences in many countries. In 1994, she published her book “Costumes from Corfu, Paxos and the OffshoreIslands,” in 1998 “Corfu town costumes from the 15th to the 19th century.” Her lessons on the “History of Greek dance” were published by the Greek Association of Tourism where she taught. In 1993 she was honoured with the silver medal of the Rotary Club of Corfu. In 2001 honoured by the Organisation of Corfu Cultural Activities and in 2002 by the Ionian Islands Association.

Elizabeth Theotoky

 

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