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Indu Raman

Keep dance heritage alive!

Raman, Indu: "Keep dance heritage alive!", 16th International Congress on Dance Research, Corfu, Greece, 30/10-3/11, 2002.

The history of art is the history of revivals

Samuel Butler

Is the urban audience is losing its sensitivity and taste for the rich, slow and elaborate theatre which is precious dance heritage?  Is this snob attitude adversely affecting the existing traditions causing them to hit the heading-for-extinction list? Ritualistic and classical theatre of the older civilizations like Greece, India & China is losing out rapidly to dazzling slick proscenium presentations of the modern entertainment world.

In the name of sophistication, influenced by snobbish city attitudes, traditional performers are being influenced to forget their roots and heritage. Are we losing our rich cultural roots and identity? How important is preservation of ancient theatre traditions? How do we ensure they are not lost to posterity? We must not forget that modern presentations (a) are based on tradition (b) are transient and (c) are not expected to last for centuries. Time is running out....

1. Introduction to Indian theatre

The ancient civilization of India is recognized as highly developed and sophisticated beyond our comprehension. Theatre is the traditional repository and the treasury that preserves and integrates rituals, rites, folk cultures, and customs. Theatre is the throbbing pulse of countryside India where there is a song and dance for everything from the birth of a child to marriages, harvest, seasons, and even death. The panorama of Indian Theatre is vast and complex and falls into various genres such as classical, folk, devotional, and ritual. The rites and rituals enshrined in the Vedas are acted out in everyday life.

Hinduism offers three paths, i.e., action, knowledge and devotion that lead to salvation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death (Karma). Devotion is considered the superior path, with music, dance and theatre as the medium through which the actor and the spectator can reach the Divine. Many plays normally reach an ecstatic climax where the entire audience is transformed into a mass of human souls yearning to reach the Higher Self. The spectators get so involved in the event that they transcend their role of mere spectators and become participants.  Every corner of the country has theatre rooted in the temple tradition. Theatre and the arts originate in religion in many countries, more so in this land of many tongues and a hundred alien invasions.

The farmers, wandering nomads and hill-tribes have no formal training but yet can sing and dance in unison. Music and rhythm flows through their veins. But the temple theatre is a strict and formal ground where the training is long and arduous. There are voluminous texts to be learnt and scriptures to be studied. The royal patrons supported the temple and its art and thus theatre enjoyed a high status. Tradition was enforced and change was strongly discouraged. Dance, music and theatre were an integrated art-form. Mythological stories formed the core of the content. The stories served to teach moral principles, educate and unify the community.

2. History

There is no historical evidence of the origin of dance and theatre in India, where the arts are considered to be divine blessings and celestial gods like Shiva and Vishnu are the fountainhead of all inspiration. Sanskrit drama developed around the 2nd century BC. It was at its peak till the 15th century AD. It continued to influence and spawn a dozen regional variations for another three centuries. While Greek and Roman theatre is known to have existed in the 6th and 2nd Century BC respectively, it is interesting to observe that Medieval theatre in Europe began around the 9th century AD while Noh of Japan, and Chinese Opera were developed in 15th century AD.

3. Important aspects of classical Indian theatre

a) The structure of the play

Bharata's Natya Sastra dated 2nd or 3rd century BC is the most comprehensive text on theatre. From the architectural aspects of a theatre structure to body movement, music, costume and inner emotional states, the Natya Sastra covers every aspect of performance. These rules are followed uniformly throughout the country with the language and customs of every region lending their hue to create an astonishing variety of theatre and dance forms. There is a vibrant synergy connecting verbal dialogue and vocal music, pure movement and expressive dance, story-telling and dramatics. An ensemble (Mela) of musicians, instrumentalists, dancers and actors come together in a performance. In the multifarious cultural scene in India, theatre forms reveal interesting similarity even between geographically and linguistically distanced styles.

Classical Indian dance has three aspects, Nritta, Nritya and Natya. Nritta is pure dance movement, which is performed to preset intricate rhythmic patterns in a song or melody. It does not have significance or meaning, but may be used for such a purpose. Nrtya is interpretative dance used when conveying the meaning of the lyrics or content of a song. It involves a codified language of hand gestures and expression of the face. Natya is the dramatic enactment of the story. A theatre or dance form may combine these aspects in varying ratio. For example, Bharata natyam, a solo dance, has nritta and nritya in equal proportions, while Kathak may have more emphasis on Nrtta or rhythmic movements and some natya. Bhagavata Mela Natakams have an equal proportion of the three aspects. The essence of Kudiyattam is the astonishing use of the eye with minimal movement and music.

b) Aesthetics: The concept of Rasa

The most significant contribution of Indian aesthetics is the analysis of the basic eight sentiments; erotic, comic, pathetic, furious, heroic, terrible, odious and marvelous and the corresponding eight emotional states; love, humour, sorrow, anger, valour, terror, disgust and astonishment. There are thirty-three transitory states and five vital involuntary states of the mind; Numbness, horripilation, change of voice, tears and loss of consciousness. Perspiration and change of colour may be included in this list. The Natya Sastra describes Rasa as the emotional response of the spectator to whole theatre experience. Did the actors convey the story effectively? Was their emoting convincing enough to pull at the heart-strings? The text even compares this experience to that of a gourmet who has been served a fine meal. It is not whether he enjoyed the soup, the main course or the dessert more, but what the total experience meant to him. A holistic purview of the theatre experience that the spectator carries with him is Rasa.

c) Literature

The classical theatre uses written scripts, thus generating a vast literature tradition in every language and form. These plays have an array of poems in varied metres that are recited, sung, dance or enacted. The literary structure of these plays imparts a richness and texture to the play and is an important built-in artistic device. The scripts offer historic evidence and much information on the social customs of their times. The playwright includes a mention of his family tree, names of his teachers, the date of writing, and the name of his patron. This introduction is spoken by the Sutradhar in 'Sakuntala' a play in Marathi, written by Ekoji II, a Maratha ruler in Tanjore:

"Sutradhar: Thus commences the play called Sakuntala after praising Chandramouliswara, goddess Bhavani, Khanderayya and all other family deities and praising favourite gods. With a prayer to Shahendra, here follows a description of the Bhosale lineage.

I bow to you, O Full Moon of the Bhosale family, father Maloji Purandra, Shahji Maharaja, his son Eka Maharaj, whose elder son Shaha Maharaj and Sarabha Maharaj's younger brother, grandson of Dipakambika, Ekoji Maharaja's work Sakuntala is being presented for the pleasure of all." In a play 'Markandeya', we have the only evidence of the date of Melattur Venkatrama Sastri in the introduction. "Written in the reign of the great warrior Sri Sivaji (II).."

 d) The performance, with particular reference to Bhagavata Mela Natakam.

While the classical theatre has overlapping functions of devotional, literary presentation and technical achievements, it is invariably a part of ritualistic commemoration. It may not be performed for mere entertainment or profit, but it is part of rituals to propitiate the gods. The rituals are integrated into the performance. For example, many art-forms include an onstage appearance of Ganesha (remover of obstacles and therefore worshipped before any life activity by all) in an elephant mask. He dances a blessing and is worshipped with fruits, coconut and flowers, and camphor is lit. This burning camphor is then symbolically shown to the spectators and orchestra. Everyone responds by accepting the flame, muttering a silent prayer and joining the hands above the head in a prayerful attitude. In Bhagavata Mela, the story of a small boy named Prahlada is enacted annually on a fixed day in the village. The story is of the appearance of Vishnu in his incarnation of Narasimha, a man-lion. The actor who portrays this character purifies himself with prayers and fasting before wearing the mask of Narasimha. The mask itself is considered so holy and powerful that it is worshipped in the temple. The spectators bow down to the actor in costume as he makes a dramatic appearance at the climax. Devotees are also known to commission a performance as thanksgiving for prayers granted and wishes fulfilled.

e) The performance area

Bhagavata Mela was earlier performed on the street in front of the temple. Spectators sit in two rows leaving an aisle in the middle. The narrow street had rows of houses on either side with their open verandahs (sit-out) facing the street. This offered extra seating. With the generally low noise level during the night, the sound of music and dialogue carried through to the hundred or so in the audience. The performers and the spectators were on the same level. The musicians stood around the actors. Large oil lamps and blazing torches lit up the performance area.

f) The community

Melattur Bhagavata Mela is a Brahmin tradition. The actors belong to the highest caste, whose duties are to interpret Vedas, conduct religious ceremonies, teach and sing the praise of the gods. Each family dedicates one of the sons to the tradition. In Melattur, only the natives of the village are allowed to participate. The son inherits the roles from the males in the family. These roles become the cherished property of the family. The community comes together as one and contributes cash, offers food and welcomes visitors in their houses who stay for the entire festival. The date is fixed on a particular day each year, so the actors and spectators schedule their commitments and ensure that they are present. They are not professional or itinerant groups. All the actors are male so the wives lend their personal dresses and jewelry for their husbands or sons to wear.

g) Preliminaries

The Natya Sastra describes rituals pertaining to the performance like placement of musical instruments, the singers enter and begin warm-up, alignment of drums and musical instruments, dancers warm-up, and then there is a long complicated drum playing which also serves to indicate to the villagers for miles around that the play is ready to commence.

h) Invocation

Officially, the 'play' commences late in the night with invocations to the pantheon of both male and female deities, among whom Ganesha and Indra (the king of gods and patron of actors) are important. Many of the verses sung before the actors enter relate to the stage Director (Sutradhar), announcements of the content of the play, description of the playwright, and the thanksgiving to the patron who in most cases is the ruling royalty.

i) Entry

The main protagonist makes his entry with a song. In fact all the characters are introduced with a song, to which they execute rhythmic steps. These songs are set to rhythmic cycles and are sung in a melody (Raga) most suited to the character's nature and appearance. The lyrics describe his costume, his manner of walking, the effect his entry has on other beings and Nature, the mannerisms of his entourage and generally indicate whether he is evil, or good and noble. In the play 'Prahlada', the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu's entry is a good example. "Hiranyakashipu entered with a fast gait. Asura (demon) courtiers accompanied him with demonic actions and gestures. The earth trembled with the firm footsteps of the valiant, unrivalled warrior. His face reflected his pride and self-importance. Ministers and generals stood by his side. The king rested his arms on their shoulders as he walked majestically. People in all directions extolled his virtues." This translation is taken from Raman Indu: Vanishing Traditions - Bhagavata mela - Special Edition Indian Music Journal, Baroda. This play is the most significant for Bhagavata Mela, which is found in Tanjore district of southern India. Five villages were granted to the tradition in 1577 by Achyuthappa Nayak. Besides Melattur where there are two groups, Saliyamangalam, and Teperumal Nallur also have annual performances. Each village has a special mask for Narasimha. The scripts are different, as is the presentation. The other two villages, Soolamangalam and Oothukadu, only perform the rituals.

These interludes do nothing to take the story forward, but are the most interesting and establish the status and characteristics of the character. They are important because of the actor dances intricately choreographed rhythmic phrases and uses elaborate interpretation. Such compositions have been handed down from father to son and are a valuable heritage to be treasured. Interpretation of a line means dancing the same line about 50 times, expanding its meaning each time. It is fascinating to see the dancer intensify his emotions in stages and give several layers of meaning to a single idea. The Bhagavata Mela actors are particularly expert in these passages and a scholarly dancer can truly appreciate the heightened feelings and deep understanding shown by these actors.

Some lyrics are sung to rhythms, which vary from slow and medium to fast. Some are sung in a free melody with a slow elaboration. There are prose passages that the Director may speak or that appear as dialogue between two characters. This variety offers rich texture and great aural pleasure. There is an air of informality and it is not a slick or sophisticated presentation in the modern sense. The make-up is natural and the costumes reflect the attire of the ruling royalty. There are more than four singers and a dance conductor who actually controls the entire orchestral team and coordinates with the actors. There is a double-faced drum (mridangam) and an Indian lute (Veena) and a flute to accompany and support the singers. The voluminous script and the length of the performance take its toll on the energy and voices of the singers. Thus the play has much to offer to lovers of music, dance and theatre.

After the major characters of a scene enter, the story unfolds. The story is told in elaborate detail and in reference to the context leading to this incident. The actors are trained in the basic technique and are knowledgeable about the scriptures, know music and the lyrics so they improvise on the stage. At times a hero or heroine may take an entire hour to complete the entry. If it is a dancing heroine, she may use this entry to establish herself as an accomplished dancer and show off her skills and technique. The play lasts all night. When the play ends with the appearance of the relevant god the sky is pink with the rising sun. Prayers of benediction and thanksgiving are chanted, and the actors and musicians go in a procession to the temple.

4. The changes in performance today

The narrow street in front of the temple in Melattur is too narrow and when the crowds became unbearable and suffocating, a well-wisher gifted an acre of land. This also split the troupe into two factions. The original group moved into the open land and built a temporary stage for the annual festival. When the village was connected to electricity the oil lamps went out. There is sound amplification, and the musicians now sit on the left in a long line. Bright incandescent lamps strung in rows light up the stage.

This writer's association with this group began in 1992 when they performed in a modern proscenium theatre in Mumbai. Clearly, they were overwhelmed by the vast stage, enormous but empty theatre, the chill of the air-conditioning, and the absence of identifiable exit and entry points. They had edited the play to accommodate the 120-minute time limit given by the organizers. They were uncomfortable and put up a pitiable performance. But it was the absolutely divine music and the intrinsic talent that shone through. At their insistence I took up a more formal role in their organization. Research was initiated, regular practice was insisted on and awareness of the formality of performances was created. We took greater care about the colours and textiles used for costumes. The make-up for female roles was improved and better wigs were procured. Actually, a little guidance went a long way, and the actors worked very hard. Till then they had performed only once a year. Now more performance opportunities were created and presentations in conferences for scholarly audiences gave them much confidence and made them realize the value of their art.

5. Areas where problems arise

A. The time factor

The plays are performed in the complete version at the village festival. This means approximately five hours, as we have seen earlier. When performing outside in proscenium theatre for an urban audience, the play is edited to 120 minutes. What parts of the play get edited? The grand entry songs, rich interpretative dance elaboration, and the peripheral characters. With this the respective musical compositions, rare melodies, and the intricate rhythmic dance passages are also edited. Soon these portions will be forgotten and the next generation will be deprived of the pleasure of performing them and viewing them. The three hundred-year old format of the play is shrinking and may become misshapen beyond recognition. Like teeth pulled out randomly, there are gaping holes instead of a beautiful smile. This means a great loss to our dance heritage.

B. Effects of modernity

The proscenium theatre experience can be seen to bring in an uneasy and acute awareness of time, audience response and personal appearance. There is loss of spontaneity and the freedom to improvise. The younger generation is missing out on inspiring role models to emulate. The satellite invasion brings shocking images from across the globe that attack the roots of their simple life and beliefs.

C. Lack of sophistication

Informed critics claim that traditional dancers compare poorly with professional dancers where technique, polish and presentation is concerned. The sophisticated technique of the institution-trained dancers raises the expectations of the urban audience. But the traditional actor has this innate ability to immerse himself in his role. It is not material gain that has brought him on the stage. He transforms himself into the role and these strong vibrations evoke great Rasa, spectator response. The seasoned, professional actor's self-consciousness blocks this spontaneity and involvement. Does this indicate that the actor's traditional inheritance and basic mind-set works for more real theatre?

D. Dwindling community

The actors are confined to a small community. These families are growing smaller, and modern education and better prospects lure sons away from the family tradition. Some do not realize the historical and social value of the art. Peer pressure and fear of ridicule for donning female make-up may be a cause for their keeping away from the art.

F. Musicians - financial drain

The musicians of the large orchestra are professional artists. The actors are dependent on them. The fees to be paid to them are a drain on the resources. The Bhagavata mela cannot use recorded music. Melattur Bhagavata Mela music is a precious heritage that carries the secret links of a grey area of the chronological map of Southern Indian music. The orthodox style of singing is difficult and very few singers have the energy and ability to hold their own for five hours.

G. Limited repertoire

There are only 12 plays written in Telegu language by one Bhagavata Mela playwright, Melattur Venkatrama Sastri. An effort to surmount this limiting boundary was made by producing a play in Marathi, the language in which many Bhagavata Nataka plays have been written. It was envisaged that enlarging the repertoire would create more performing opportunities, a new audience, and re-kindle interest in the art. The event drew a positive response from the public and the press. The government's cultural agencies now recognize the scope and potential of the art. Unexpectedly, it also attracted future sponsors.

6. Other similar art forms: How do they cope?

6.1. Kutiyattam

Kutiyattam was once the preserve of the Chakyars and Nangiars, an orthodox community of Kerala. The performance was strictly performed in the temple theatre known as 'Kutambalam" to be witnessed only by the Brahmins and royalty. This art form is entirely in Sanskrit, and Prakrit. Some of the scenes use the local language, Malayalam. It is so elaborate and stylized that it attracted only the learned and intellectual scholars. Kutiyattam is now performed in theatres and in kutambalams not connected to temples. Temple coffers have dwindled and today there are rarely any performances in the Kutambalams. Many of the present actors do not necessarily belong to this community, so a newer, younger generation is being trained.

6.2. Kuchipudi

The Brahmin males-only dance theatre of Andhra is today better known as a solo dance form. The art was languishing, but a senior guru threw open the bastions of the art and declared that women and any one else could learn and perform this art. Today it has survived as a solo art though there are dance-drama performances too. In fact, sometimes women dancers don male roles!

6.3. Ankiya Nat

The temple dance tradition was created in the 15th century as an expression of devotion by Sankaradeva. Originated in the north-eastern Indian state of Assam, Ankiya Nat (literally one-act play) has neither ventured outside its state, nor has ambitions to be recognized as a performing art. But it is practiced on a regular basis in its native state. Unlike the other forms, which have a simplistic mis-en-scene, this theatre use larger than life props to denote trees, mountains etc.

6.4. Yakshagana

This has a continued tradition of over 400 years and is performed in the open fields at night with fire torches for lighting. The actors wear striking red, yellow, black and green costumes with a splendid headdress and stylized make-up. Dr. K. Shivarama Karanth worked to bring cohesion to the performance and his research has contributed enormously towards the amelioration of the dance theatre form. The several existing troupes have been fortunate in receiving help from the state and the central government as well as invitations to perform abroad.

6.5. Kathakali

The elaborate mask make-up and bejeweled crowns are immediately identified anywhere in the world. Among the first of Indian performing arts to be appreciated world wide, Kathakali was traditionally a male bastion. A single scene from the epics can last a whole night. The only lighting was a large oil lamp in the front of the performing area. The combination of drums, slow poignant music and elaborate mimetic interpretation transports the viewer to a world of magic and fantasy. Kerala Kalamandalam was set up early last century to revive and preserve many art-forms of this area. Today women actors take on both male and female roles. The urban performances feature just one episode or one character from a play on any kind of platform under neon and electric lights. The art continues to flourish both at home and globally, but this overexposure sometimes results in jaded performances with little merit or aesthetic fulfillment.

7. What loss of indigenous culture can mean. A Westerner's view

I met Peter Oskarson of Sweden, at the Kudiyattam Center Natanakairali, Irinjalakuda, Kerala. Peter headed the World Theatre Project. It was Oskarson's second trip to India to coordinate with Kudiyattam theatre. Reproduced below is an excerpt from a transcript from a taped interview where Oskarson speaks of the problems of trying to find one's roots. I asked Peter what brings him to study other cultures in this journey. "We try to understand our culture better. It is hard enough. Especially if you are a Westerner. So many of our traditions are gone. Or broken. Or only on paper. Not body to body as the guru and pupil who are making the tradition alive. But of course, the others also wanted to develop their own, but for a Chinese actor the question was how can we come out of an old tradition that was come to stagnation? Where it is not any longer communicating with the audience. It is only a forum. What can we learn from the others? Africa had been occupied for 500 years. Not a similar situation as in India because you kept your culture. But in Mozambique language was forbidden, religion was forbidden and so on for 500 years. It is a very long time. What is our culture? If we see beyond these 500 years of European influence can we make a theatre tradition that is built on our own? Because it was a splendid culture. So when they meet Indian Kudiyattam theatre they could have a kind of vision of how their theatre could have been, if there was one. Then there are elements of course. They have the dance, they have the music, costumes, rituals. Many things that survived. From these fragments they are trying to put something together. As we are doing. The natural living with religion is very difficult in so called developed countries. Even if the longing is there. But many don't find a forum for this longing for wholeness. We do things like New Age, and coming to India..

"We had some golden ages in Western Theatre history. Greek theatre, and Shakespeare theatre, for example. But no one can say how they acted on the Shakespearean stage. We know very little about it. Could you imagine if you wrote down a text from a Kudiyattam play? Only the text? 10 lines for six hours? And that was all that remained? What would you do? Even if you had the manuals for acting and direction, it would be very difficult to reconstruct if that was the only thing you had and did not have a guru. Kudiyattam has changed, of course, in the past years, but the guru can tell with a 90% accuracy how an actor acted in the 16th century. Remember, Greek theatre is 4th century BC!"

8. Why is revival important?

A performance of the path-breaking Bhagavata Mela play 'Sakuntala' in Bombay in January this year raised many questions. It was of historical significance and it was a tremendous effort to revive Bhagavata Mela and open new doors. Some informed critics and influential connoisseurs struck at the very roots of the cause and the importance of revival efforts. Excerpts are followed by this writer's comments in italics:

1. "It is the common people that these dramas address, their express purpose being to familiarize the general populace with the legends and their lessons in moral and ethical values." Art lovers must learn to respect the traditional artist for the contribution of his art to the country's culture. This condescending attitude is a matter of concern to all heritage lovers.

2. "Many of the viewers were left wondering why Bhagavata Mela natakams had to be staged at all even if their themes are non-religious." According to this writer, creating awareness of the art-form is of the highest priority. Many forget that these artists have made many sacrifices and preserved the art not for material gain but with a sense of responsibility.

3. "Would the offering have been better in a local temple or as part of annual festivals?" This is a vanishing tradition and it was expected that serious art lovers would sit up and take cognizance of what the culture is losing. The purpose of holding these performances in a city is the hope that enlightened critics and scholars will come forward to encourage and support the efforts positively. This is not mere entertainment for groups of illiterate audiences-in-transit.

4. 'Perhaps traditional Bhagavata Mela can be led through a transformation with stagings outside the temple precincts taking on the character of an art form rather that of a religious rite.'

These comments seem to miss the forest for the trees. It is possible to perform the religious rites only in the village. The devotional fervour will come through only in the village ambience, which takes on a special festive air during the annual festival. The exercise of bringing the artists to perform outside is to garner support and sponsorship. Thousands of spectators would not have been able to view this dance-theatre if they did not perform in cities. They need recognition and acceptance from society and through them from the government agencies. (See Sruti 213, May 2002)

9. Possible solutions for survival

After studying the options chosen by other arts in the same classification, we can conclude that there are indeed choices, but will they destroy the essence of Bhagavata Mela?

1. One solution is to open the doors for all communities and women at the risk of destroying the religious sanctity for propagation of the art.

2. A training school that will teach the music, dance and the theatre to all must be established. These students could be used for performances outside the village.

3. The urban performances must be edited but the village performances should be complete in all respect. Only traditional performers should participate. This will ensure that the tradition is carried on, but performances can be scheduled at any time of the year.

4. Documentation of the performances by senior artists will ensure that the original choreography is preserved for future reference.

5. Music must be recorded in a studio with modern equipment. The music must also be written down in notation.

6. A research bureau should be constituted to collect photographs, information, tape interviews and collect manuscripts, books and memorabilia for reference.

7. Private sponsors may not support what does not generate publicity for their brands. Therefore cultural clubs, central and state government agencies should be requested to fund the efforts.

10. References

Richmond/Swann/Zarrilli: Indian theatre traditions of performance. Motilal Banarsidass, 1993.

Raman, Indu: "Bhagavata Mela vanishing traditions", Special Edition, Indian Music Journal, Baroda.

Wilson, Edwin: The theatre experience. McGraw-Hill, 1976.

Vatsyayan, Kapila: Traditional Indian theatre. National Book Trust, 1980.

Raman, Indu (editor): Commemorative issue, Bhagavata Mela Nataka Utsav-Mumbai, 2002.

11. The author

Trained in Bharata Natyam from Rukmini Devi's Kalakshetra, Chennai (1966-1970), Indu has been teaching, performing and composing new repertoire since 1970. Chairman of Tanjore Brahmin temple dance-theatre Melattur Bhagavata Mela Natya Vidya Sangam (1993-2002), Indu focused her efforts to preserve, promote the art and sponsored performances of this ancient art in metros, temples and art conferences. Indu published research papers in art journals and wrote features on music, dance, theatre and film in leading newspapers. Indu Raman was producer, sponsor, part-choreographer, designer of costumes and stage settings of a new Bhagavata Mela play 'Sakuntala' in 2002. Initiated research on the Bhagavata Mela and a publication is under way.

Indu Raman



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