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Nikolaos Siokis

Argoutsiaria in Klisoura of Kastoria.

Siokis, Nikolaos: Argoutsiaria in Klisoura of Kastoria", 16th International Congress on Dance Research, Corfu, Greece, 30/10-3/11, 2002.

1. The disguises and their meaning

In Northern Greece, in Epirus, in Thrace, as well as in Pontos and in Asia Minor, groups of excited adults disguise themselves on New Year’s Day, at Christmas and at Epiphany. These disguises last 12 days of Christmas and are known as “Rogatsia” and “Rougatsiaria”, but these names vary according to the place: “Argoutsiaria”, “Liougatsiaria”, “Logatsaria”, “Loucatsaria”, “Rogatsades”, “Rougatsiaraioi”, “Rougoutsiaria”, etc. We also meet a variation of names: “Alides”, “Arapides”, “Kalindrades”, “Kalikantzaroi”, “Kapitanaraioi”, “Karavaslades”, “Karnavalia”, “Kountounades”, “Babagiourdoi”, “Momogeroi”, “Baboerides”, “Babougeroi”, “Babousiaraioi”, “Diligaroi”, “Rouganades”, “Sourovaroi”, “Sourvatzides”, “Tzamalides” or “Tzamaloi” and many others [1].

These groups of masqueraders sometimes give performances of dramatic character in the open country, which belong to the mimic acting and according to the sympathetic magic; their aim is the provocation of the fertilizing energy of nature, vegetation and fructification. It is not difficult to explain the amazing durability of the custom of disguise and the preservation of elements of ancient worship and beliefs: people pay attention mostly to the cheerful part of the ceremony, in a climate of joy and entertainment.

2. The ancient roots of modern disguises

The disguises that last 12 days of Christmas are activities related to the roman feasts that are found in the winter’s turn of sun (Saturnalia [2] – Vrumalia [3] - Dies natalis invicti Solis [4] - Calendae [5] - Vota publica [6]- Larentalia [7] - feast of Ianos [8]) and that correspond to the winter Dionisia that took place between the 15th December and the 15th January. In the “kat’ agrous Dionisia” (the feast that took place in the open country) the troupe wandered round the quarters and the “komastes” (comedians) mocked everybody, just as the masqueraders do today. In the Athenian “Anthestiria” (another great feast), during the second day, “Choas”, the marriage of Dionysos took place, represented by the lord king and the queen in Voukolio. The mimic union of the couple or the figurative ceremony of the marriage that we meet in many performances are considered to be magical acts, that aim to provoke the fertilization power for the vegetation etc. In the modern Thracian performances of the Dionysos circle two kinds of fertilizing magic are maintained: the worn-out form of sacred wedding and its potential rural model, the indecent mimic union of the couple [9]. All these ceremonies are of ancient origin and are feasts for the welcoming of the year.

3. The initial reaction of the Church and its final compromise

The masquerades were the main characteristic of the Roman feasts and were introduced into them from ancient Greek worship. So, even though the Church reacted intensely, the masquerades continued to take place at the same time as the idolatrous feasts. In the 2nd century Klimis Alexandrephs spoke about his contemporaries, the “γελοίως κατά τας πομπάς σχηματιζομένους” and in the 4th century Ioannis Chrysostom attacked Christians for the “ακαταγέλαστον κωμωδίαν” when they deformed their faces and followed the idolatrous custom according to which women dressed in men’s clothes. Asterios bishop of Amasia spoke about disguises during the 4th century and Grigentios the bishop of Tafara about the “τα δερμάτινα πρόσωπα ενδιδυσκομένους και επί της αγοράς παίζοντας”. The 62nd Canon of the Ecumenical Synod in Troullo witnesses that disguises also continued to take place in the next century. The Canon also prohibits the carrying out of Calends and other idolatrous feasts and imposes strict penalties for the disguises. However, in the “martirologio” of Saint Dasios, which was written in the 10th century, we find the testimony that: “εν γαρ τη ημέρα των καλανδών Ιανουαρίων μάταιοι άνθρωποι, τω έθει των Ελλήνων εξακολουθούντες, χριστιανοί ονομαζόμενοι, μετά παμμεγέθους πομπής προέρχονται, εναλλάττοντες την εαυτών φύσιν και τον τρόπον, και μορφήν του διαβόλου ενδύονται˙ αιγείοις δέρμασι περιβεβλημένοι, το πρόσωπον ενηλλαγμένοι, αποβάλλουσιν εν ω ανεγεννήθησαν αγαθώ….”. In the 12th century, Valsamonas commented on the same Canon of the Synod says, referring to the feasts of Calends, “όπερ και μέχρι του νυν παρά τινών αγροτών γίνεται κατά τας πρώτας ημέρας του Ιανουαρίου μηνός”. He also admits that in his time and despite the prohibitions, the custom of disguises was at its peak during Christmas time and Epiphany “και τινές κληρικοί…..προς διάφορα μετασχηματίζονται προσωπεία˙ και πότε μεν ξιφήρεις εν τω μεσονάω της εκκλησίας μετά στρατιωτικών αμφίων εισέρχονται, πότε δε και ως μοναχοί προοδεύουσιν ή και ως ζώα τετράποδα, αλλ’ ή εκ μακράς συνηθείας ταύτα τελείσθαι” [10].

When the Church realized that people were deeply influenced by the idolatrous feasts, they decided to replace them with Christian ones (Christmas, Circumcision of Jesus, Saint Vasilios day and Epiphany). In addition they kept some of idolatrous customs of these days, although Bishops kept the disguises within appropriate limits. So, as a result, their literature action was the source for the folklore [11].

4. The etymology of the word argutsaria

Linguistically the word “argutsiaria” (Aroman. argutsiari) comes from the Latin word rogator-oris (=beggar) and the verb rogare (= I beg, need) from which the Vlach (Aromanian) verb rogu or arogu derives, although it was not very popular. On the other hand the word “argutsiaria” is possibly an evolution of the word ruga-ae (=wrinkle of face) and the verb rugoare (=I wrinkle, uglify) which were translated into Vlach (Aromanian) language as ruga tsi are (=the one who has wrinkled face) [12]. In the old days the masqueraders used to walk about the roads while dancing, collecting food, sweets or money which they spent on an amusing night. Today few of these are maintained.

5. The masquerades on New Year’s Day in Klisoura of Kastoria

In Klisoura of Kastoria the inhabitants are only Vlachs (Aromanians) and as a result people keep up the Roman masquerades, during the 12 days of Christmas, especially the “argutsiaria” on New Year’s Day. Vlachs adopted the custom of disguises in ca. 146 A.D. during the Roman Empire when Romans came into contact with the local population [13]. In addition we should emphasize that in Klisoura this custom took place mostly during the Turkish rule. “Argutsiaria” were a group, with a leader and other men who followed him, so the custom was a means of freedom and love for the nation. The group tries to liberate a local girl (kokona) from the Turkish ruler (gekas or geganos) who has taken her against her will [14]. “Argutsiaria” (brave men) kidnap the ruler and the girl, and they humiliate him in order to represent his imprisonment. After the Turkish rule, the local population enriched the custom with derisive songs that were related with them. These songs are well known to people of Klisoura, e.g. “ Katinio al Papapetri / Athina al Nessa / Tsi s’ da laia di campana / Sti cupria ali soacri / Kosta al Larga di la Rungu / Tuts aests’ arugutsiari / Melazim / Mulieri shi barbats / Tsi sontu buni fiatili ” [15] etc. In many cases the derisive songs referred to people who had immigrated to other places. They used to sing for them: “candu fugu nvirinats, cu pradz’ di la ciradziadz’” [16].

After the passing of many decades the custom became so popular that the groups of “argutsiaria” used to start preparing two months before the important day. The groups were three, four or more (the old men, the middle-aged, the young and the little ones). “Va n’ adramu” [17] was the phrase they were saying all day. On New Year’s Eve disguised people and others (on behalf of the groups) waited for the musicians outside the village and they went all together to the central square, where they used to dance full of joy. The next day, just before the end of the divine liturgy, the masqueraders used to gather at the fountain of Saint Athanasios church (Aroman. La fǎntîna di l’ Ayi Thǎnasi) and they walked towards the small square of Saint Antonios church (covered fountain, in Aroman. La fǎntîna di disuprǎ) with the little kids at the front and the musicians behind. Afterwards they went on to Saint Nicola’s square (fountain in public square, Aroman. La fǎntîna din pǎzari or din codûru), dancing in pairs and clashing their bayonets. Here they formed a circle with other people and kept dancing until noon. When the dance was finished the masqueraders took off their masks. In the evening the masqueraders used to pay visits to those who were celebrating their name day, to relatives and to anyone else who had invited them. Their visit brought good luck, fertility and happy year [18].

6. The participants in performance and their costumes

Every company consists of the following “persons” (cast):

6.1. The “tserkezos” (Aroman. tsircez’) [19]. He is the chief of group. He is dressed in black “salvari” (baggy breeches), black shirt and sleeveless waistcoat, and wears tsarouchia on the feet. In his hand he holds a “glitsa” with which to conduct the group's proceedings.

6.2. The “gekas or geganos” (Aroman. gega or gegan) [20]. He is the Turkalbanian who has abducted the “kokona”. He wears black short to knee breeches with white cotton leggings underneath and tsarouchia, a shirt and sleeveless waistcoat decorated with excellent embroideries (braiding), a silk kerchief that is tied on the head and a mask on the face. Characteristic is the Turkish yataghan (cutlass) that he wears at the waist tied with two colored belts.

6.3. The “kokona” (aroman. cucona) [21]. She is the basic and unique figure of group, dressed in European clothes. She is always played by a man who is disguised as a woman, because only men take part in the custom. In the old days Kokona was dressed in local costume (under-chemise with broad sleeves made of fine silk cloth, silk, long, full dress made of silk and/or oriental brocade, close-fitting gold-embroidered sleeveless waistcoat, long silk belt with a fringe, white woolen stockings with embroideries of many colors on the ankle, the toes and the heel) that was later replaced by European clothes and a hat adorned with artificial flowers and peacock or cockerel feathers. She is the unique figure of troupe that today does not wear a mask as in the old days. In her hand she holds an umbrella for the sun (“parasoli”); after her dance she will turn the umbrella upside down and collect in it tips from the spectators.

6.4. The “argutsiarides” (Aroman. argutsiari) [22]. These are dressed in local black dulamades (short, sleeved thick garment), mandies (cloak, mantle) that was introduced into the custom after the Macedonian Struggle, and white long stockings and leggings (Aroman. tsiuaritsi) [23] knitted from wool or cotton, and over these they tie black garters with tassels (Aroman. vuveati or cǎltsǎveti) [24]. Initially they were dressed in many-pleated foustanelles (skirts with many folds) and shirts dyed gray with smoke (with lampblack). The dulamades are decorated on the two front panels on the bosom, on the pockets, on the sleeves and on the lower left edge, with red velvet bands embroidered with gold-trimmed braiding by the “terzis” local tailors. They also wear a black shirt, which is embroidered with gold braiding on the bosom and on the broad sleeves, and the shoulders of the shirt are embroidered with silver sequins and buttons. The costume is completed with two long plain-colored silk belts with a fringe (Aroman. branu) [25], a cartridge belt, a bayonet (Aroman. cama) [26], the silk scarf from the headdress, which is tied in a complex bow at the left side of head (Aroman. dramna) [27], leaving the ends to fall on to the shoulders, and the mask or “prosopida” (Aroman. fatsa) [28]. The “prosopida” consists of a white mask with red lips and a red frontal band [29]. The “prosopida” is surrounded (invest or framed) with hare skin that imitates the beard, and is adorned with a big black mustache made of unwrought hair of sheep. Internally the mask is covered with wax in order to avoid the dampness of the breath inside.

We have only bosom jewellery; usually a silver crossed chest ornament, silver filigree or double “kiousteki”, “palaska” (cartridge case) and many silver rows of chains and a cross, and also a silver talisman with the engraved representation of saints, the “haimalia” [30].

7. The musical instruments and the dances [31]

For the feast they invited “zournades” and “ntaoulia” (Aroman. tampanji) [32] from Goumenissa, Naousa or Ghidas (today its name is Alexandria) and sometimes from a village that had refugees (Sotiras of Ptolemaida) or from the Turkish villages of Ptolemaida. In some cases they danced while local musicians, “zournatzides” or “gaintatzides”, played their instruments. The masqueraders usually dance:

7.1. Katinio, Papapetro’s daughter (carnival “patinada” of Klisoura).

7.2. Una tahina [33] (kokona danced the “sirto” of Klisoura).

7.3. Tsamikos grave dance (tsamikos dance of Klisoura).

7.4. Mouriki (tsamikos dance of Klisoura).

7.5. Berati.

7.6. On three dances (like Hasapikos, Haido, Samarina’s Boys).

7.7. Gainta.

7.8. Naouseiko (its dance Moustampeiko).

8. Epilogue

The people of Klisoura, defying even the bad weather have kept alive the custom of “argutsiaria” in their village (like the “korivantes” of ancient Greece). Today grandmothers make costumes from their grandchildren. The new way of living has not become an obstacle for the custom, which has remained the same over the years. We should congratulate those who try so hard to save the tradition in these modern times.

9. Notes

1. For the different appellation and the disguises see G. N. Aikaterinidis, Metamfiesis Dodekaimerou eis ton Vorioelladikon choron, Praktika B´ Simposiou Laografias tou Vorioelladikou chorou (Ipiros-Makedonia-Thraki), Komotini, 19-22 Martiou 1975, I.M.CH.A., Thessaloniki 1976, 25-27. K. Karapatakis, To Dodekamero, Athens 1981. A. Kiriakidou – Nestoros, Oi dodeka mines. Ta laografika, Thessaloniki 1982. V. Pouhner, Theatrika stihia sta dromena tou Vorioelladikou horou, Praktika D´ Simposiou Laografias tou Vorioelladikou chorou (Ipiros-Makedonia-Thraki), Ioannina, 10-12 Oktovriou 1979, I.M.CH.A., Thessaloniki 1983, 225-273. D. Loukatos, Christougenniatika kai ton Giorton, Athens 1984. V. Pouhner, Laiko Theatro stin Ellada kai sta Valkania: sigritiki meleti, Athens 1989. D. Loukatos, Eisagogi stin elliniki laografia, Athens 1992. L. Drandakis, O aftoschediasmos ston elliniko dimotiko choro, Athens 1993. N. Siokis, Laika ethima kai theia latria, unpublished work, Thessaloniki 1999.

2. Took place between the 15th – 23rd December and was the feast of god Saturnus (corresponding with hellenic Cronos).

3. It was the feast of the winter’s turn of sun on 24th or 25th December.

4. It was the birthday feast of the invincible Sun, which took place in 25th December. Christians, contrary to what idolators believed, considered the 6th January as the beginning of the year and not the 1st day of the same month. That day was the day of Jesus' baptism and the beginning of his shipment. In Rome in 354 A.D. they separated the feast of Jesus’ nativity from the day of his baptism; that was when they decided to celebrate the birth of Jesus and the beginning of the year in 25th of December, while on this day idolaters celebrated the birth of Mithras, the invincible Sun. this way, Jesus was adored like the Sun and the difference between Christians and idolaters was clearly distinguished. N. G. Politis, Ta pro Christou Christougenna, newsp. Estia, 2-1-1898. N. G. Politis, Meletai peri tou viou kai tis glossis tou ellinikou laou. Paradoseis, v. A´-B´, Athens 1904.

5. It was the 1st day of January when the new masters of Rome came in town. In Rome the year used to begin on 1st March, but in 153 A.D. for the first time the majors started their authority service on 1st of January and since then that day was considered as the first day of the year.

6. The 3rd day of January was the day of public wishes. During that day Roman generals used to promise to obey the law and govern as they should.

7. It was the 4th of January when they honoured Acca Laurentia.

8. Was the feast of double-faced god Ianos in 7th January.

9. M. Nilsson, Elliniki laiki thriskeia, transl. I. Th. Kakridis, Athens 1953. G. A. Megas, Ellinikes giortes kai ethima tis laikis latreias, Athens 1963, (repr. 1992), sporadic. K. Kakouri, Ek tis simerinis latreias ton Thracon, Athens 1963, 138. A. K. Gisdavidis, Laografika Makedonias. Ithi – Ethima – Paradoseis. To Paggaion, Athens 1973, sporadic. A. Kiriakidou – Nestoros, I archaioi Ellines sti neoelliniki paradosi, Laografika Meletimata, Athens 1975,204-213. I. Th. Kakridis, I archaioi Ellines sti neoelliniki laiki paradosi, (transl. From 1st german edition in 1966), Athens 19893. Ethima tou dodekaimerou sto Nomo Kastorias, offering in newspaper Kastorianos Politis, year 1st, n. 30, 18-1-2002.

10. G. Rallis, M. Potlis, Sintagma ton thion kai ieron kanonon ton te agion kai panefimon Apostolon kai ton ieron Ikoumenikon kai Topikon Sinodon kai ton kata meros agion Pateron, v. II, Athens 1852, (repr. Athens 1966), 448 etc. N.. G. Politis, Paradoseis, v. B´, Athens 1904, 1270 etc..

11. St. P. Kiriakidis, O Ioannis o Chrisostomos os laografos, Laografia IA´ (1934-1937), 634-641.

12. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul dialectului Aroman, general si etimologic, edit. 2a, Bucuresti 1974, 214, 737, 1043, 1045.

13. N. Siokis, D. Parashos, I Vlachoi tou Mourikiou kai tou Siniatsikou, Thessaloniki 2001.

14. Here is maintained the myth of Demeter and Persephone and the kidnap of the latter by Ploutonas (known as Adis today), which was replaced by the kidnap of a local girl by a Turkish ruler. D. N. Stratou, Ellinikoi paradosiakoi choroi, Athens 1979, 82-88.

15. Transl. Katinio, Papapetro’s daughter / Athina, Nessa’s daughter / Why do the church bells ring / In the manure of mother in law / Kostas, Larga’s son / from Rungo / All these carnivals / Melazim (turkish name) / Women and men / What good girls are.

16. Transl. When the sad ones are gone with the money from guides.

17. Transl. We will disguise.

18. A. I. Tziogou, Synoptiki istoria tis Klisouras Ditikis Makedonias kai to istorikon autis mnimion tis christianosinis tis Ieras Monis Panagias – Genniseos tis Theotokou, Thessaloniki 1962, 85-86. M. K. Papamihail, Klisoura Dit. Makedonias. Akmi – Politismos – Agones – Thisiai – Istoria – Ithografia – Laografia, without pl. 1972, 58-59. N. Harmanta, I choroi mas. Ta Argoutsaria stin Klisoura Kastorias, mag. Psithirismata (Likio ton Ellinidon), n. 7 (December 1997).

19. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 443.

20. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 608.

21. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 392.

22. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 214.

23. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 439.

24. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 300, 332, 1283.

25. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 284.

26. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 310.

27. It is a silk feminine black or dark blue or dark brown scarf l. 1,30 X h. 1,30 and was worn by old women and widows (women in mourning). The appellation “dramna” is met only in the vlach (aromanian) villages Klisura in Kastoria and Nimfaio in Florina. See T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 500.

28. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 541.

29. Some red circular signs on the frontal of old masks may derive from the old Vlach custom of tattooing on the forehead for dissuasive (crosses, etc.) or beautifying purpose (moons, suns, etc.). The tattoo used to hurt because it was done with needles plunged in liquid blend from coal, gunpowder, bluing and “raki” (brandy). Tatouaz i to kentima tis sarkas, mag. Armoloi, n. 7 (1979), 24-29. V. K. Siouti, Ki an eisai rok pes mou ena paramithi! Giagiades me tatouaz, mag. Epsilon, (newsp. Kiriakatiki), n. 111, 23-5-1993, 26-30. N. K. Moutsopoulos, I dermatostixi (To tatouaz). Diachroniki dierevnisi tou fainomenou, Athens 1996, 61-70. E. P. Alexakis, Horos, ethnotikes omades kai simvoliki sigrotisi tis koinotitas sto Pogoni tis Ipirou. Meleti mias periptosis, sto Taftotites kai Eterotites. Simvola, sigenia, kinotita stin Ellada – Valkania, Athens 2001, 181-215.

30. A. Hatzimihali, Elliniki argirochoiki techni, Nea Estia 14 (1933). M. Mpotsaris, I elliniki argirochoia kai to savati, mag. Zigos v. 7 (March – April 1974), 80-102. P. Zora, Kentimata kai kosmimata tis ellinikis foresias, Athens 1981. P. Zora, Laiki Techni, series Elliniki Techni, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1994. I Chrisikoi tis Neveskas – The Goldsmiths of Nymphaion, exhibition in City of Thessaloniki in XXX Dimitria, VafopoulioCulturalCenter (24 October – 30 November 1995), Thessaloniki 1995.  

31. A. Raftis, O kosmos tou ellinikou chorou, Athens 1985. A. Raftis, Choros, Politismos kai Kinonia, Athens 1992. V. Tirovola, Elliniki paradosiaki choreftiki rithmi, Athens 1992. L. Drandakis, O aftoschediasmos ston elliniko dimotiko choro, Athens 1993. A. Raftis, Egiklopedia tou ellinikou chorou, Athens 1995. G. Melikis, Zournades kai Ntaoulia. Roumlouki: istoriki – Mousikologiki proseggisi, Thessaloniki without yr..

32. T. Papahagi, Dictionarul, op. cit., 1185.

33. Transl. One morning.

10. Bibliography

Aikaterinidis G. N., Metamfiesis Dodekaimerou eis ton Vorioelladikon choron, Praktika B΄ Simposiou Laografias tou Vorioelladikou chorou (Ipiros-Makedonia-Thraki), Komotini, 19-22 Martiou 1975, I.M.CH.A., Thessaloniki 1976, 25-27.

Alexakis E. P., Horos, ethnotikes omades kai simvoliki sigrotisi tis koinotitas sto Pogoni tis Ipirou. Meleti mias periptosis, sto Taftotites kai Eterotites. Simvola, sigenia, kinotita stin Ellada – Valkania, Athens 2001, 181-215.

Drandakis D., O aftoschediasmos ston elliniko dimotiko choro, Athens 1993.

Ethima tou dodekaimerou sto Nomo Kastorias, offering in newspaper Kastorianos Politis, year 1st, n. 30, 18-1-2002.

Gisdavidis A. K., Laografika Makedonias. Ithi – Ethima – Paradoseis. To Paggaion, Athens 1973.

Harmanta N., I choroi mas. Ta Argoutsaria stin Klisoura Kastorias, mag. Psithirismata (Likio ton Ellinidon), n. 7 (December 1997).

Hatzimihali A., Elliniki argirochoiki techni, Nea Estia 14 (1933).

I Chrisikoi tis Neveskas – The Goldsmiths of Nymphaion, exhibition in City of Thessaloniki in XXX Dimitria, VafopoulioCulturalCenter (24 October – 30 November 1995), Thessaloniki 1995.

Kakouri K., Ek tis simerinis latreias ton Thracon, Athens 1963.

Kakridis I. Th., I archaioi Ellines sti neoelliniki laiki paradosi, (transl. From 1st German edition in 1966), Athens 19893.

Karapatakis K., To Dodekamero, Athens 1981.

Kiriakidis St. P., O Ioannis o Chrisostomos os laografos, Laografia IA΄ (1934-1937), 634-641.

Kiriakidou – Nestoros A., I archaioi Ellines sti neoelliniki paradosi, Laografika Meletimata, Athens 1975,204-213.

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Megas G. A., Ellinikes giortes kai ethima tis laikis latreias, Athens 1963, (repr. 1992).

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Moutsopoulos N. K., I dermatostixi (To tatouaz). Diachroniki dierevnisi tou fainomenou, Athens 1996.

Mpotsaris M., I elliniki argirochoia kai to savati, mag. Zigos v. 7 (March – April 1974), 80-102.

Nilsson M., Elliniki laiki thriskeia, transl. I. Th. Kakridis, Athens 1953.

Papahagi T., Dictionarul dialectului Aroman, general si etimologic, edit. 2a, Bucuresti 1974.

Papamihail M. K., Klisoura Dit. Makedonias. Akmi – Politismos – Agones – Thisiai – Istoria – Ithografia – Laografia, without pl. 1972.

Politis N. G., Ta pro Christou Christougenna, newsp. Estia, 2-1-1898.

Politis N. G., Meletai peri tou viou kai tis glossis tou ellinikou laou. Paradoseis, v. A΄-B΄, Athens 1904.          

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Pouhner V., Laiko Theatro stin Ellada kai sta Valkania: sigritiki meleti, Athens 1989.

Raftis A., O kosmos tou ellinikou chorou, Athens 1985.

Raftis A., Choros, Politismos kai Kinonia, Athens 1992.

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Siokis N., Laika ethima kai theia latria, unpublished work, Thessaloniki 1999.

Siokis N., Parashos D., I Vlachoi tou Mourikiou kai tou Siniatsikou, Thessaloniki 2001.

Siouti V. K., Ki an eisai rok pes mou ena paramithi! Giagiades me tatouaz, mag. Epsilon, (newsp. Kiriakatiki), n. 111, 23-5-1993, 26-30.

Stratou D. N., Ellinikoi paradosiakoi choroi, Athens 1979.

Tatouaz i to kentima tis sarkas, mag. Armoloi, n. 7 (1979), 24-29.

Tirovola V., Elliniki paradosiaki choreftiki rithmi, Athens 1992.

Tziogou A. I., Synoptiki istoria tis Klisouras Ditikis Makedonias kai to istorikon autis mnimion tis christianosinis tis Ieras Monis Panagias – Genniseos tis Theotokou, Thessaloniki 1962.

Zora P., Kentimata kai kosmimata tis ellinikis foresias, Athens 1981.

Zora P., Laiki Techni, series Elliniki Techni, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1994.

I consider my obligation to thank Parashu Asp. and Demiri Kir. for their help in the translation part.

11. Photographs

1. “Gegas” from the carnival of Klisoura. 1978.

2. “Argutsiaru” from the carnival of Klisoura. 1989.

3. CarnivalinKlisoura. 1895.

4. CarnivalinKlisoura. 1914.

5. Carnival in Klisoura. 1920.

6. The group of Klisoura in the carnival of Aminteo. 1921.

7. CarnivalinKlisoura. 1923.

8. The group of Klisoura in the carnival of Aminteo. 1930.

9. The group of Klisoura in carnival of Argos Orestiko. 1971.

10. Carnival in Klisoura. 1973.

12. The author

Nikolaos Dim. Siokis was born in Klisoura of Castoria, 1974. In 1998 he graduated from the Faculty of Theology of the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki and the same year he attended the Faculty of Palaeography in the Hagiological Studies Centre of the Metropolis of Thessaloniki. Today he finishes post-graduate studies at the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Masters of Liturgical-Christian Archaeology and Art of the Section of Pastoral and Social Theology. His research focuses on the history and customs of Klisoura, but also on the Vlach-Aromanian civilization, publishing many articles about folklore, linguistics and history. He has archives with miscellaneous old documents, old photos and sound recordings of Vlach songs from Klisoura. He is in charge of the Ethnological-Folkloric Museum of Klisoura since its foundation in 1989. He is a member of the Society of Klisourians everywhere “Saint Marcos” and a foundation member of the Society of Vlach Students of Thessaloniki. During the last years he founded and maintained a dance group and chorus in Klisoura in order to project the local civilization and customs.

Nikolaos Dim. Siokis

 

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