Joomla project supported by everest poker review.

Telma Martha Gómez Murillo

Men in the Giver path.

Murillo, Telma Martha Gòmez: "Men in the Giver path", 17th International Congress on Dance Research, Naxos, 22-26/10, 2003.

I love the cenzontle´s song

bird of 400 voices.

I love the green color of jade

and the enervated perfume of the flowers,

but I love more my brother the man.

        Nezahualcóyotl, king of Texcoco (1431-1472)

Introduction

The region that goes from Central Mexico down to Costa Rica and Honduras, which anthropologists have named Mesoamerica, was, about 3000 years ago, the main source of a civilization that emerged independently and at a different time to that of Asia, Europe and America. To define this briefly, this region shared agricultural cultures, which were based on corn, beans and squash. From this, a new urban society was born. It reached high achievements, both architectural and astronomic. At the same time, its religious beliefs ranged from natural deities to the great gods who civilized, and then it went to monotheism, and finally adopted warrior gods, before it had any contact with Europe. Indigenous groups such as Olmecs, Mayans, Zapotecs, Teotihuacans, Toltecs and Aztecs are the best-known cultures among a big group of people who inhabited Mesoamerica and enriched its culture. Although they considered life as transitive and imperfect, they were aware of man’s spiritual dimension and the goal that art and thought were to reach. By this they understood that individuals had a face and a heart.

After deep reflection about the mission that the human beings on this planet have, I turned back and saw a world full of color, motion and symbolism; those were the rituals that Ancient Mexicans offered, in the offer´s heart, water seed, incense, feathers, flowers, snails and various objects related to water, earth, wind and fire. Along with the music, these peoples danced to the Lord, giving thanks for all the goods given, and asking for health, soil to grow crops, and peace and harmony for their lives. To honor this part of Mexican culture, a heritage I’m proud of living, I created this play about pre-Hispanic rituals. In this search, which ancient Mexicans would name “a Heart’s path”, I can see myself among such peoples, spreading the Mexican thought that is based in a peaceful message to be transmitted. “A heart´s way” which invites you to look into yourself through dancing and poetry, surrounded by music as well as of natural and animal sound, as a person who is sensitive enough to love everyone else.

Our play’s ritual is a summary of various elements involved in the sacred ceremonies of the ancient Mexicans and reviewed by chroniclers of that time, such as Toribio de Benavente and Bernardino de Sahagun. We also picked the interpretations of archeologists and anthropologists like Jacques Soustelle and Roman Piña Chan, just to mention some of them. In this ritual we will light the sacred figure to ask our Lord, as well as the four winds or the four Cardinal points, for permission to develop our ceremony in peace and harmony. In ancient Mexico, there used to be a fifth point, a central one, which is of high importance in theater and used to work as an axis between Earth and Heaven, placing man before his deity. Throughout our work, we’ll go over different aspects and basic concepts, which support our previous work.

1.1. Dancing, music and poetry in the pre-Hispanic world

Executions of Ancient Mexican dancing imply a conception of the world. In this, humans are part of the world, we can act in it and measure its gifts using poetry, music and motion, and the best way to do it is dancing. In this case, we think that the solution for the dilemma posed by the congress is to rescue pre-Hispanic elements and to give them an esthetic treatment, which can bring them closer to contemporary sensitivity. As a musical companion we use the compositions of Yolteotl, whose members use original instruments created in ancient pre-Hispanic cultures to lead us to their symbolic universe.

1.2. Importance and meaning of elements involved in the Offrend’s heart.

SNAIL The snail, a symbol that is a must in a wide variety of codes, paintings and frescoes, has different meanings. It is a spinning figure, which involves life’s origin and soul. “In a very wide sense, the snail expresses the spiritual development that begins from a center, origin or inner world, to spread towards an evolving life cosmos (Agnese Santon). Currently the snail is used as an instrument in various Mexican dances, blowing through it and leading its breath towards the four cardinal points.

WATER AND SHELLS These are elements that create and support life. Water, at the same time, can purify. The shells, since they are found in seas and lagoons, are symbols and represent fertility.

CANDLES They represent light and are the symbol of the inner sun’s birth. The candle’s flame is a vital spark, and lights the walker’s way towards wisdom. When we ignite it, the walker places himself in a humble position, to adore God, Nature’s forces and our ancestors.

FIRE This natural element acquires a great importance in ancient Mexican cultures. Fire represents an environmental purifier; it cleans up everything around it. It is also the places where Gods sacrificed themselves to create the Sun and the Moon, according to the Myth of the Five Ages or Suns.

HOLY SMOKE This is an element repeated in ritual and dancing presentations, which can be appreciated in Palenque’s frescoes, like copalli or ignited incense. It also acquires the meaning of purification, taking away the negative forces that float in the air. In the ceremonies, it is a must to ask for permission from the 4 winds or cardinal points, as well as from each one of their guards. Whenever they are being called, these points are smoked to purify and to communicate with the 4 Guards: 4 Tezcatlipocas.

SACRIFICE The sacrifice summarizes the relationship between life and death. The victim was reborn in a spiritual world. That is why the codes and frescoes show that from the sacrificed body grows a plant, from a chopped head grow snakes or from a buried head a tree.

1.3. Clothing, jewelry and color usage

Indigenous workers created jewelry, such as bracelets, necklaces and other pieces.

According to the Tonalpohualli (the course of days and nights in Aztec culture), the feathers shield called “chimalli” has a protective function and its design reproduces the symbol Xochitl. This is the astrological sign correspondent to the interpreter whose meaning is the flower that opens and offers beautiful colors to human eyes, and at the same time is the life, which is renewed. The clothes reflect this thought by the flower’s image on knee protectors, chest protector and belt. The turquoise blue of both the skirt and the blouse represents the sea and the sky. Blue is considered a protective color. The headband, the small belt and the red bracelet are used to concentrate energy and protect the donor from any evil spirit, which may disturb him during the ceremony. We also find the red and black combination, which represents consciousness and control of the duality, because day and night, life and death, war and peace winter and fall have a time and place which are adequate in the cosmos. To sum up, we are talking about natural forces and spiritual world knowledge.

1.4. Conclusion

Man must be in harmony with the cosmos, with nature and with other human beings. That is why I am asking for permission to our protectors to light the sacred fire, as well as our inner fire, led by our hearts in peace and love to give it in a ritual ceremony and following the music in a circular dance where everybody has a similar value and importance to express ourselves forever.

References

Benavente, Fray Toribio de: “Historia de los indios de la Nueva Espana”. Editorial Porrúa, México, 1986.

Cotterell, Arthur: “Diccionario de mitología universal”. Editorial Ariel, México, 1992.

Florescano, Enrique: “La cosmogonía maya”. En Peter Schmidt, Mercedes de la Garza, y Enrique Nalda, coordinadores. Los mayas. CNCA-INAH Américo Arte Editores, Italia, 1999.

González Torres, Yàlotl y Ruiz, Juan Carlos: “Diccionario de Mitologia y Religiòn de Mesoamérica”. Larousse, México, 1995

Manzanilla, Linda & Lòpez Luján, Leonardo: “Atlas històrico de Mesoamérica”. Larousse, México, 1993.

Marzal, Manuel: “El rostro Indio de Dios”. Colecciòn Teologìa n.9. Universidad Iberoamericana, México, 1994.

Piña Chan, Román: “Quetzalcoátl, serpiente emplumada”. Lecturas mexicanas n. 69. Fondo de Cultura Econòmica, México, 1985.

Sahagún, Fray Bernardino de: Historia de las cosas de la Nueva España.Editorial Porrúa, México, 1998.

Soustell, Jacques: Vida cotidiana de los Aztecas. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1998.

Todorov, Tzvetan: La conquista de América. La cuestión del otro. México: Siglo XXI, 1987.

Vilar, Pierre: Iniciación al vocabulario del análisis histórico. Editorial Crítica. Barcelona, 1999.

Wagner, Elizabeth: “Mitos de la creación y cosmografía de los mayas”. En Nikolai Grube, Editor, Los mayas. Una civilizaciòn milenaria. Konemann. Koln, Germany, 2000, pp. 281-293.

Credits

Director: Telma Martha Gòmez Murillo

Coordinator: Yohali Gutierrez Ramirez

Research: Eduardo A. Canto Salinas

Translation: Débora Gamboa Méndez

Ms. Telma Martha Gómez Murillo

Telma Martha Gómez Murillo

Men in the Giver path.

Murillo, Telma Martha Gòmez: "Men in the Giver path", 17th International Congress on Dance Research, Naxos, 22-26/10, 2003.

I love the cenzontle´s song

bird of 400 voices.

I love the green color of jade

and the enervated perfume of the flowers,

but I love more my brother the man.

        Nezahualcóyotl, king of Texcoco (1431-1472)

Introduction

The region that goes from Central Mexico down to Costa Rica and Honduras, which anthropologists have named Mesoamerica, was, about 3000 years ago, the main source of a civilization that emerged independently and at a different time to that of Asia, Europe and America. To define this briefly, this region shared agricultural cultures, which were based on corn, beans and squash. From this, a new urban society was born. It reached high achievements, both architectural and astronomic. At the same time, its religious beliefs ranged from natural deities to the great gods who civilized, and then it went to monotheism, and finally adopted warrior gods, before it had any contact with Europe. Indigenous groups such as Olmecs, Mayans, Zapotecs, Teotihuacans, Toltecs and Aztecs are the best-known cultures among a big group of people who inhabited Mesoamerica and enriched its culture. Although they considered life as transitive and imperfect, they were aware of man’s spiritual dimension and the goal that art and thought were to reach. By this they understood that individuals had a face and a heart.

After deep reflection about the mission that the human beings on this planet have, I turned back and saw a world full of color, motion and symbolism; those were the rituals that Ancient Mexicans offered, in the offer´s heart, water seed, incense, feathers, flowers, snails and various objects related to water, earth, wind and fire. Along with the music, these peoples danced to the Lord, giving thanks for all the goods given, and asking for health, soil to grow crops, and peace and harmony for their lives. To honor this part of Mexican culture, a heritage I’m proud of living, I created this play about pre-Hispanic rituals. In this search, which ancient Mexicans would name “a Heart’s path”, I can see myself among such peoples, spreading the Mexican thought that is based in a peaceful message to be transmitted. “A heart´s way” which invites you to look into yourself through dancing and poetry, surrounded by music as well as of natural and animal sound, as a person who is sensitive enough to love everyone else.

Our play’s ritual is a summary of various elements involved in the sacred ceremonies of the ancient Mexicans and reviewed by chroniclers of that time, such as Toribio de Benavente and Bernardino de Sahagun. We also picked the interpretations of archeologists and anthropologists like Jacques Soustelle and Roman Piña Chan, just to mention some of them. In this ritual we will light the sacred figure to ask our Lord, as well as the four winds or the four Cardinal points, for permission to develop our ceremony in peace and harmony. In ancient Mexico, there used to be a fifth point, a central one, which is of high importance in theater and used to work as an axis between Earth and Heaven, placing man before his deity. Throughout our work, we’ll go over different aspects and basic concepts, which support our previous work.

1.1. Dancing, music and poetry in the pre-Hispanic world

Executions of Ancient Mexican dancing imply a conception of the world. In this, humans are part of the world, we can act in it and measure its gifts using poetry, music and motion, and the best way to do it is dancing. In this case, we think that the solution for the dilemma posed by the congress is to rescue pre-Hispanic elements and to give them an esthetic treatment, which can bring them closer to contemporary sensitivity. As a musical companion we use the compositions of Yolteotl, whose members use original instruments created in ancient pre-Hispanic cultures to lead us to their symbolic universe.

1.2. Importance and meaning of elements involved in the Offrend’s heart.

SNAIL The snail, a symbol that is a must in a wide variety of codes, paintings and frescoes, has different meanings. It is a spinning figure, which involves life’s origin and soul. “In a very wide sense, the snail expresses the spiritual development that begins from a center, origin or inner world, to spread towards an evolving life cosmos (Agnese Santon). Currently the snail is used as an instrument in various Mexican dances, blowing through it and leading its breath towards the four cardinal points.

WATER AND SHELLS These are elements that create and support life. Water, at the same time, can purify. The shells, since they are found in seas and lagoons, are symbols and represent fertility.

CANDLES They represent light and are the symbol of the inner sun’s birth. The candle’s flame is a vital spark, and lights the walker’s way towards wisdom. When we ignite it, the walker places himself in a humble position, to adore God, Nature’s forces and our ancestors.

FIRE This natural element acquires a great importance in ancient Mexican cultures. Fire represents an environmental purifier; it cleans up everything around it. It is also the places where Gods sacrificed themselves to create the Sun and the Moon, according to the Myth of the Five Ages or Suns.

HOLY SMOKE This is an element repeated in ritual and dancing presentations, which can be appreciated in Palenque’s frescoes, like copalli or ignited incense. It also acquires the meaning of purification, taking away the negative forces that float in the air. In the ceremonies, it is a must to ask for permission from the 4 winds or cardinal points, as well as from each one of their guards. Whenever they are being called, these points are smoked to purify and to communicate with the 4 Guards: 4 Tezcatlipocas.

SACRIFICE The sacrifice summarizes the relationship between life and death. The victim was reborn in a spiritual world. That is why the codes and frescoes show that from the sacrificed body grows a plant, from a chopped head grow snakes or from a buried head a tree.

1.3. Clothing, jewelry and color usage

Indigenous workers created jewelry, such as bracelets, necklaces and other pieces.

According to the Tonalpohualli (the course of days and nights in Aztec culture), the feathers shield called “chimalli” has a protective function and its design reproduces the symbol Xochitl. This is the astrological sign correspondent to the interpreter whose meaning is the flower that opens and offers beautiful colors to human eyes, and at the same time is the life, which is renewed. The clothes reflect this thought by the flower’s image on knee protectors, chest protector and belt. The turquoise blue of both the skirt and the blouse represents the sea and the sky. Blue is considered a protective color. The headband, the small belt and the red bracelet are used to concentrate energy and protect the donor from any evil spirit, which may disturb him during the ceremony. We also find the red and black combination, which represents consciousness and control of the duality, because day and night, life and death, war and peace winter and fall have a time and place which are adequate in the cosmos. To sum up, we are talking about natural forces and spiritual world knowledge.

1.4. Conclusion

Man must be in harmony with the cosmos, with nature and with other human beings. That is why I am asking for permission to our protectors to light the sacred fire, as well as our inner fire, led by our hearts in peace and love to give it in a ritual ceremony and following the music in a circular dance where everybody has a similar value and importance to express ourselves forever.

References 

 

Benavente, Fray Toribio de: “Historia de los indios de la Nueva Espana”. Editorial Porrúa, México, 1986.

Cotterell, Arthur: “Diccionario de mitología universal”. Editorial Ariel, México, 1992.

Florescano, Enrique: “La cosmogonía maya”. En Peter Schmidt, Mercedes de la Garza, y Enrique Nalda, coordinadores. Los mayas. CNCA-INAH Américo Arte Editores, Italia, 1999.

González Torres, Yàlotl y Ruiz, Juan Carlos: “Diccionario de Mitologia y Religiòn de Mesoamérica”. Larousse, México, 1995

Manzanilla, Linda & Lòpez Luján, Leonardo: “Atlas històrico de Mesoamérica”. Larousse, México, 1993.

Marzal, Manuel: “El rostro Indio de Dios”. Colecciòn Teologìa n.9. Universidad Iberoamericana, México, 1994.

Piña Chan, Román: “Quetzalcoátl, serpiente emplumada”. Lecturas mexicanas n. 69. Fondo de Cultura Econòmica, México, 1985.

Sahagún, Fray Bernardino de: Historia de las cosas de la Nueva España.Editorial Porrúa, México, 1998.

Soustell, Jacques: Vida cotidiana de los Aztecas. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1998.

Todorov, Tzvetan: La conquista de América. La cuestión del otro. México: Siglo XXI, 1987.

Vilar, Pierre: Iniciación al vocabulario del análisis histórico. Editorial Crítica. Barcelona, 1999.

Wagner, Elizabeth: “Mitos de la creación y cosmografía de los mayas”. En Nikolai Grube, Editor, Los mayas. Una civilizaciòn milenaria. Konemann. Koln, Germany, 2000, pp. 281-293.

Credits

Director: Telma Martha Gòmez Murillo

Coordinator: Yohali Gutierrez Ramirez

Research: Eduardo A. Canto Salinas

Translation: Débora Gamboa Méndez

Ms. Telma Martha Gómez Murillo

Ticul L-22 Mzna.372, 4a. Sec. Jardines del Ajusco, MX-14200 Tlalpan

Mexico

======================================

======================================

Raftis, Alkis (ed.): Dance in Education. Procedings of the 17th World Congress on Dance Research, Naxos 22-26/10/2003. Athens, IOFA, 2003.

Checked by Copeman

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************

[CF0314e.doc]

Murillo01EN.doc

Visitors

Articles View Hits
115784
Friday the 15th.