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Daniela Ivanova

Folk dance education in Bulgaria today.

The trainer and the trainee in dance folklore.

Ivanova, Daniela: "Folk dance education in Bulgaria today. The trainer and the trainee in dance folklore", 17th International Congress on Dance Research, Naxos, 22-26/10, 2003.

Summary

Many members of ensembles and choreographers-to-be are being educated at school today. The choreographer is the main “instrument” in the process of education in folk dance and in the creation of new dance products. This paper reviews the institutions connected with the education in dance folklore in Bulgaria today. It concerns the opportunities for education, in relation to the different ages of those willing to dance Bulgarian dances - as well as giving a review of the institutions where professional qualifications can be acquired for the teaching of the dances. The following subsections are included in the text:

The trainer: What is meant by the concept “choreographer” in Bulgaria? Modern forms of education in the speciality “Bulgarian folk choreography”. The trainee: Modern forms and stages in the education of a dancer of arranged folklore. Education in folk dance (choreography) in: Vocational state schools; State schools with a department of choreography (7th-12th form); State schools of general education with extended programmes of choreography (1st-7th form); Schools where choreography is taught as an optional subject – 2 lessons a week; Schools with a partially subsidised form of education, and private schools.

Contents of the subject “Choreography” at school. Folk dance training at primary schools. Data presented in the text are from field research, made in the period 2000-2002, with the support of Research Support Scheme, Open Society Institute, Prague.

Introduction

In Bulgaria the development of dance folklore as stage art is linked with the management and the substantial support of that “national art” on the part of the Communist Party, even though before 1944 performing national dance groups are referred to in scientific literature. [1] The work on the realization of the above-mentioned idea is the basic factor which today, even somewhat arbitrarily, divides the Bulgarian dance folklore into “arranged” and “authentic’’ or into “stylized” and “spring”, and the first has long ceased being characteristic only for the town. This process is strongly linked with the process of giving opportunities for training in Bulgarian dances; it is also linked with the results of the stylization of the traditional dance forms and, of course, with the personality of the choreographer.

I. The trainer. What is meant by the concept “choreographer” in Bulgaria?

It is difficult to establish a collective image of the Bulgarian choreographer today, having specified in advance that it is the specialist in Bulgarian dances that is meant. The very definition of “choreographer” in Bulgaria is used ambiguously. On one hand, the choreographer is the person who thinks in images, “composes” the steps and figures. On the other hand, the choreographer is the manager of the dance group, but a manager who is a coach, a person who cannot produce his/her own dances but must invite to his/her group renowned choreographers as producers. A particular case of the latter variant is the situation when the type of choreographer alluded to proves to lack creative abilities, he definitely has dubious aesthetic criteria, but he is unaware of either of these things and in addition he is doggedly productive.

In the over 20 interviews and inquiries carried out with Bulgarian choreographers for the period 2000-2002, the answers to the question “What do you mean by the concept “choreographer” usually were: “The choreographer is a person who creates his/her own dances” or: “The choreographer is a person for everything - universal he/she must be. As you like it – as an organizer and as everything – from the alpha to the omega, not to wait for somebody else to gather the people for him, but to get down to the dancers and to say: “three-four!” He must participate in everything, in the entire organizing, he must be at the heart of the problems so that there will not be anyone more competent than him” [2]. “For me a choreographer is a person who creates dances and at that on solid Bulgarian ground in the respective ethnographic region. But today things are blurred – everybody calls himself a choreographer; he may be the manager of a dance group, but he says he is a choreographer irrespective of the fact that he has not created a single movement. A colleague used to say: you can make a single movement, but when you have created it, and it is yours – you have achieved a lot in life. There are many good interpreters as well, which is not less important, and there is nothing offensive in saying that.” [3]

This way or that way, in spite of the differentiation between the choreographer and the coach, which is informally made, formally, or to be more exact, in practice, the term “choreographer” combines both, and has three or four characteristic features.” “What was the situation with us: every choreographer was a coach as well, and a pedagogue, and chief art director and composer – everything! He combined three and even four fields in his work. Let’s say, I can produce dances…But if I lack the qualities of a pedagogue, of a coach and of the others, my group will not be a good one! And I have been an ardent supporter of this argument, that a mere diploma is not enough to make a choreographer of you.” [4] In fact this belief is not even old, but since the time of the late Prime Minister Loukanov: “He (the horo-leader - my remark) must have universal knowledge. He must know the rhythm and the music in order to set with his movements the size of the dance steps. He must know Geometry in order to construct figures, he must know Philosophy and Rhetoric in order to depict characters and to arouse passions, he must know the art of painting and of sculpture in order to compose poses and groups. As far as mythology is concerned, he is obliged to know perfectly well the events from the Chaos and the Genesis to the present day.” [5]

2. Modern ways of training in the specialization “Bulgarian folk choreography” [6]

Working choreographers in Bulgaria today are aged between 22 and 70 years. Among them are some who were the students and disciples of the doyens of Bulgarian choreography (M. Dikova, K. Dzenev, K. Haralampiev, I. Todorov, T. Beckirski, etc.) as well as some very young people, who have not necessarily finished the State School of Choreography [7] in Sofia and the Academy of Music and Dance Art in the town of Plovdiv and are not well acquainted with the “classicists” in the genre.

Until the years of the Perestroika in the ex-Soviet Union the only higher institute, in which one could be educated and get the special title “choreographer-director” was the Higher Institute of Music and Pedagogic in Plovdiv [8] where a lot of students studied while they danced with the “Thrakia” State Ensemble. In recent years, however, other opportunities to receive such education have arisen. Initially such opportunities existed in the town of Blagoevgrad (at the Higher Institute of Pedagogic, now the SouthwesternUniversity), and - after the democratic changes – in the town of Varna (the Free University of Varna), and in Sofia (the NewBulgarianUniversity). Each of those universities today has a programme, which, though based on the unified state requirements, has some specific priorities, its own lecturers, its “persons” and its image as a whole. This variety is a prerequisite for the different styles of arranging and managing of the dance material and also for the existence of different concepts concerning the methods of teaching Bulgarian dances – in dance groups or in a choreography class at school.

The following important point should be made here: the choreographer of the folklore ensemble is entitled to and has the actual opportunity to promote gifted children. He can afford to remove the noisiest children from the rehearsal (even though in all the large and fairly large cities in the country the child participating in such activity pays a monthly charge of 10 to 15 levs [9], and every manager has to keep that fact in mind). The rehearsals usually last 2 hours, are held two or three times a week, and the choreographer organizes them according to his own concepts and goals.

The situation at school is different: the choreographer here is “a teacher” and as such he has to keep several considerations in mind: his working hours for the school year have to total up to 720 (three lessons a week), the lesson in the first form lasts 35 minutes, in the second, third and fourth forms, 40 minutes, and in the 5-12th forms it lasts 45 minutes, when working to the programme approved by the Ministry of Education and Science. For one hour a week the teacher-choreographer also teaches children from classes with extended programmes of music or some kind of art, where such special subjects are in the curriculum. It is an exaggeration to speak of the selection of dance-gifted children in the choreography classes; those willing to dance are admitted, not necessarily the gifted ones. The choreography teacher, however, cannot afford working only with the gifted children and not with all of them; he cannot afford to remove from the lesson those that are in the way of the work or are totally indifferent to it. All of the students show the skills they have mastered at the annual performance at school, where the dances taught have been arranged for stage performance.

One of the problems that was vigorously discussed by the choreographers at the First National Seminar of the Bulgarian School Choreography Teachers [10] was the balancing between the dances taught which have been fixed for the curricula for every form and those for the annual performance of new dances. Another related problem concerns the ability or inability of the good teacher in choreography to be at the same time the author and the producer of dances. It is not enough to have improved the students’ technical abilities by the exercises, nor is it enough to have taught them horo dance and games, when they are not suitably arranged for the stage. It is not proper however – the specialists think – for the children in class to be taught mostly dances arranged for the stage, thus getting acquainted with particular dance “combinations” without knowing the sources – the traditional horo-dances. The opinion of most choreographers is that the training of dancers is not the principal aim of an education in choreography. In theory this seems understandable and goes without saying, but in reality the dancers often (especially in ensemble) master mainly arranged dance combinations. In spite of this, considering contemporary Bulgarians' common ignorance of the traditional horo-dances, if there are people who still know and are able to do something, they are likely to be members of the folk ensembles, and the inhabitants of the smaller settlements. [11]

In Bulgaria today there are hundreds of specialist-choreographers, who have acquired their qualification at the above-mentioned institutes. An important prerequisite for this fact – as well as for the success of the institutions offering qualification in choreography, is that many of those who have graduated with such a qualification (Bachelor of Arts degree) have the chance to begin work as teachers in choreography at the primary and secondary schools everywhere in the country where there are classes with extended programmes of choreography or some other kind of art. In the years since 1990, though there has been a tendency to discontinue the activity of dance ensembles [12] (or to go to chamber forms), new possibilities for Bulgarian dance education in the cities have been clearly outlined. These are: the nursery school, the school, the Center for Work with the Children (the former Pioneer Homes), the dance group (ensemble) at the municipality, the Culture Center, the Library Club, the Military Club, the private foundation, etc. Today there are primary and secondary schools with extended programmes of choreography in Sofia and in Plovdiv (17 in Sofia and 17 in Plovdiv) as well as in all the bigger towns of the country [13].

Increased opportunities to qualify as a choreographer today, together with the changing political and economic situation in the country, have made choreographers from all generations and schools change the way they think and work. It has all led to a new way of life for the professional choreographers of integrity. Their creative efforts have been directed to the making of attractive folklore dance performances, using means of expression from the ballet and eurythmics; show-elements, multi-media. All this has aimed at a better selling of the dance product and gaining of the young audience.

3. The trainee. Modern forms and stages in the training of a dancer of arranged folklore[14]

The education in folklore dance (choreography) in Vocational state schools

NationalSchool of Dance Art. In Bulgaria there is only one National School of Dance Art, until 2002 bearing the title “State School of Choreography”. This school is the only one of its kind in the Balkans, having on its curriculum education in ballet, as well as education in Bulgarian dances. Here are some preliminary data – in 1956, at the Secondary School of Ballet, a class for studying Bulgarian folk dances was established, which later expanded to a department of “Bulgarian Folk Dances” of the State School of Choreography [15]. Today the work at the school goes on actively, in spite of a certain lessening of the number of those willing to study at it. There is an annual admission of students to it after the 7th form. Those admitted [16] are classified after a careful assessment of their physical abilities, music and dance aptitude, as well as natural talents. In the course of 5 years at the school, as well as with the Bulgarian dances, as stylization and original models, the following subjects are also included: Bulgarian dance exercise, classical exercise, typical dances, historical dances, musical instruments and some others, which are aimed at forming a future versatile professional dancer.

“Philip Koutev” Secondary School of Music in the town of Kotel. The school is mainly concerned with the education of instrumentalists-performers of folk music. In the last years a specialized choreography class has been established for studying Bulgarian dances.

Secondary School of Music in the village of Shiroka Luka, the district of Smolyan. This school specializes in the education of musician-performers of folk music and singers. For the year 2001-2002 a choreography class has been established at the school.

State schools with a department of choreography (7th-12th form). There are data about such schools [17] in the towns of: Sofia (1), Plovdiv (1), Blagoevgrad (1), Pazardzik (1), Elin Pelin (1), Pordim (1). The dancers who are educated at these schools do not graduate as professionals.

State primary schools with extended programmes of choreography (1st –7th form). These are concerned with training in folklore dance for the primary and secondary schools. The education is carried out according to curricula approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, and it is different for the types of schools mentioned as follows. Today primary schools with extended studying of choreography (1st-7th form) besides those mentioned in Sofia (17 schools) and in Plovdiv (17 schools) exist in many settlements in the country. There are data about such schools in: Bourgas (4), Varna (3), Rousse (1), Silistra (1), Gabrovo (1), Pernik (1), Pazardzik (1), Stara Zagora (4), Radomir (1), Sliven (2), Jambol (2), Blagoevgrad (1), Smolyan (1). This information is not accurate, because there are no summarized data available at the Ministry of Education for the whole of the country and the information has been gathered at different sites. The establishment of a choreography class at a school is decided independently by the governing body of the school itself. Thus the process of establishing and closing of choreography classes is rather dynamic and there is no institution to supervise its changes.

Schools at which choreography is taught as an optional subject – 2 hours a week. This form of education is offered in many places in the country, almost everywhere where there is an appointed choreography teacher on the payroll. It is targeted mainly at children who are doing extended study in some other type of art: music, fine arts, woodcarving.

4. Schools with partially subsidised form of education and private schools

In 1976 L. Zhivkova [18] established a specialized school for gifted children, which continues to function as a National Education Complex of Culture [19]. Bulgarian dances are studied one hour a week there and in that hour studies comprise: "Exercise, horo-dance, combinations” [20]. Today in Sofia there are several private schools at which folklore dance is taught either during classes, or in some extra-curricular form of education. Their activity is determined by the aims and goals of the education at the particular school; the curricula for lessons in which Bulgarian dances are taught are determined by the governing body of the school.

5. Contents of the subject “Choreography” at school [21]

The exercise is of great importance at the Bulgarian school, in the classes with extended programmes of choreography, (1st-7th form), as well as in the specialized choreography classes (8th-12th). What is the choreography class structure in the Bulgarian school as a typical model? The usual pattern of a rehearsal today, even for the choreography class, is as follows: exercise while holding the barre (mostly in professional ensembles and schools); exercises in the centre; “turning” diagonally (to the right and to the left); combinations and figures in the space in the middle of the hall (as the end of the warming-up, which takes approximately 30 minutes); followed by elaboration of dance movements from the repertoire; performing one, two or more dances.

At many schools the lesson in choreography begins and ends with a bow, which pursues several aims: to frame the rehearsal and to separate it from the other activities. At the same time, this also expresses an attitude to the receiving space, a kind of “permission “ to use it in the beginning and gratitude in the end. Not all choreographers understand it exactly in this way, but for nearly all of them the bow is aimed at balancing the degree of bending, standardizing the position of the arms, head and legs, at aligning the rows, and at the same time, at showing respect for the audience. In Bulgaria the dancers warm up properly for the dancing with a set of typical classical exercises combined with elements from movements of Bulgarian dances, and they aim at developing a posture and an overall stage manner. At this point we are touching the topic of the influence and direct relation between the state politics and the folklore dance art development – we can recognize both in the same process of creating folklore ensemble dancers and folklore dance activities in general [22]

It is difficult to point to the schools in which this model of constructing the lessons is followed exactly, but it is to a great extent approved of by the teachers in Sofia and in the country. There are certain misinterpretations of the aims of this subject and the way it is taught. In some cases a balance is sought between the purely folklore models taught and the skills required for them to be performed on the stage. These are definitely directed to the realm of art. In this way of interpreting the subject much attention is paid to achieving a style and movement perfection, to the refinement of music appreciation and the stage manner; special rehearsal uniforms and a special attitude to the work are required as is the case when art is the subject of study. Part of the lessons is dedicated to the education of the children in folklore theory – they are introduced to rituals and rites, to the character and the style of the people from different districts, to the costumes, to the choreographic works, which have turned into classical Bulgarian choreography. They are assigned themes to improvise on.

Other choreography teachers at school follow the same model, but the folklore horo-dances have hardly been included in the curriculum. After training for several years the disciples of such teachers know mainly how to dance combinations of dances. Other teachers do not insist on the students wearing rehearsal uniforms (the children dance dressed in training suits or whatever is fit for them), make light exercise for warming-up and insist on the children learning to dance folklore horo-dances and enjoying the very act of dancing. Playback is often used – records of the music to horo-dances performed by folklore orchestras. These groups are described in rather general terms; every teacher has his /her own manner of teaching, his/her accomplishment and training and, last but not least, he/she has a different approach to the aims of the Bulgarian dance teaching at school. Today's schools are increasingly becoming institutions where children can dance Bulgarian dances.

6. Folklore dance training at the nursery schools

The principals of the nursery schools in nearly all the bigger towns in Bulgaria give specialists with education in choreography the opportunity to teach Bulgarian dances.[23] The lessons are held once or twice a week, and last for 30 minutes, the children being classified into two or three age groups. “There are opportunities in nearly every nursery school – it depends on whether a large enough group of children will gather, because the lessons in a foreign language are charged for, the lessons in modern dance are charged for, the training in military art is charged…”[24] In a university town where there is a Bachelor programme in choreography – like Blagoevgrad – there are lessons in Bulgarian dances [25] on the curriculum of all the nursery schools in the town's territory. The usual practice for the managers of the bigger ensembles is to make up the young group of the ensemble by working with children from the nursery schools. Most of the children are usually willing to continue dancing with the same trainers and thus they naturally become the youngest members of the folklore ensemble.[26]

7. Model of structuring of the lesson in Bulgarian dances at a nursery school

The children, dressed in T-shirts and skirts/trousers and with slippers on come in to a row in the dance hall and put their dolls and toys aside. The choreographer arranges them for a bow – the girls in front, the boys behind the girls. Counting with fingers in the time of melodies in 2/4 and 7/8. Rhythmical movements of the arms while rhythmically reciting a humorous poem that appeals to the children, with musical accompaniment. Rhythmical movements for the legs – (consecutive stamping with both the legs in time 5/8, resembling one of the basic movements in the exercise). Rhythmical movements to the melodies of popular children’s songs including imitation of the movements talked about in the text. Dance play with the toys the children are carrying. Quicker and rhythmical dance movements from the Bulgarian folklore dance lexis. A bow. The lesson is taught with accordion accompaniment.

At all the primary schools where Bulgarian dances are taught there are annual performances. Parents of children at Nursery schools are usually informed by the governing body of a nearby school with an extended programme of choreography that that it is possible for them to enroll their children in the first form in such a class. They hope to find enough children (and parents) willing to enroll in such choreography classes so that they can be completed annually. The governing bodies of many schools already aim to educate and train children in Bulgarian dance and also to acquaint them with Bulgarian folklore culture.

This review is an attempt to draw a picture of how “the oldest elaborated art”[27] is present in “modern times” and in Bulgaria's institutional forms of education.[28] Because of the concise size of the presentation it is not possible to include arguments concerning the characteristics of the new dance text in the broader context of the medium from which it arises and takes its form. Instead, the data collected by the author are simply presented; the detailed analysis of these will be the subject of future scientific research.

It is obvious from the data presented that a large number of the cadres of the ensembles and choreographers-to-be are trained today at school. The choreographer is the main “character” in the process of the training in folklore dance and in the creation of a new dance product. The choreographer is the trained interpreter of traditional dance folklore – in line with the regulations of the stage art. He/She can be either qualified or not qualified, refined or not refined enough, but whatever he/she is – all his/her good and bad qualities, his/her gift or mediocrity are passed on to “his/her” dancers. The choreographer creates dance works which form certain notions of the folklore dance art both in the dancer and in the audience and even in the lookers-on; he/she creates dances which supposedly will turn into “memory” [29] and beside this process of creating the “new” goes the process of “fading of the old” and the gradual replacement of the latter by the former. In this sense the choreographer can be looked upon as a contemporary “cultural hero”[30] (if we allow ourselves to use the “epidermis” of the concept). He can be thought of as the creator of the new stage product on the basis of folklore, as the person who consecrates the children into the art of dance, and as the person who cultivates aesthetic feelings.

As in any work dedicated to the education of children and young people, the profession of the choreographer-specialist in folk dances is extremely responsible, and not only because of the obvious advantages of the exercises and the dance skills. If we accept the idea that everything is a text and everything means something, it is clear that dance folklore is only one of the texts for decoding particular ethnicity or culture. That is why it is important who the person is who shows the first dance letters, and how he does it, and what kind of dance sentences will be born from it. What will be proclaimed as characteristic of the definite culture traditional dance (text) in the future?

Notes

[1] Dzoudzev:1944:79, 83

[2] Interview with S. Simeonov, choreographer of many years of the “Dobrudza” ensemble, the town of Silistra

[3] Interview with I. Donev, choreographer of the “Naiden Kirov” Folklore Dance Theatre, the town of Rousse

[4] Interview with D. Doichinov, one of the doyens of Bulgarian choreography, the town of Plovdiv

[5] Quotation after A. Alexandrova, 1983

[6] Ivanova 2001

[7] The school has been renamed to “National School of Dance Art”

[8] The Institute was established in 1974

[9] 5-8 euros

[10] May 17-18th, 1997, at the State School of Choreography, organized by the Association of the Music and Dance Workers in Bulgaria

[11] Nearly at every school where choreography is taught, there is a dance group, as an extra-curricular form

[12] Ivanova 2001

[13] According to the data of the inspector in music of the Sofia Regional Inspectorate (who supervises the activity of the choreography classes as well) in Sofia for the school year 2001-2002 in the 17 mentioned schools there are 117 choreography classes

[14] The data are collected in the course of a two-year-lasting scientific project (June 2000-June 2002) titled “The Folklore Dance Today”. Terrain studies in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, supported by Research Report Scheme, Prague, Open Society Institute

[15] Yanakiev 2000:&

[16] For the school year 2001-2002 12 girls and 12 boys are admitted at the school, aged 14 years and a 5-year- long course of education

[17] The data are incomplete

[18] Minister of Culture at that period

[19] The complex is situated on the territory of Sofia, the district of Gorna banya

[20] Declared by a teacher at such a school

[2]1 The data have been collected from observations on the work of the choreography classes in Sofia/6 schools/, Plovdiv/3/, Varna/1/, Rousse/1/, Smolyan/1/, performances at the school in Shiroka luka and Kotel, festivals and performances of the classes with extended programmes in choreography in Sofia and Plovdiv , lessons and performances of the State School of Choreography, a lot of individual concerts, individual performances, videomaterial, interviews with choreography teachers and principals of schools in Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Rousse, Razgrad, Smolyan, Stara Zagora, Pazardzik, Kazanluk and Pernik. Also included is the introduction to the curricula after which work the choreography teachers in the country and which are approved by the Ministry of Science and Education.

[22] It is not my opinion that it was one of the results of the policy of the Bulgarian Communist Party during the 1944-1989 period, which supported and financed culture and was very close to the policy of the Soviet Union. That fact has had a direct relation to the development of the non-professional folklore dance ensemble activities in Bulgaria on a very high level and in a very professional way.

[23] “Many dancers from the State Ensemble work in the nursery schools”- data of G. Stoyanov

[24] After the data of D. Radulova, a choreographer in the town of Varna

[25] After the data of P. Petrov, dance teacher at the same university

[26] This principle was applied in the work of the “Zdravets” folklore ensemble in Sofia, with 300 children participating in it, when we supervised the lessons of the choreographer and the manger, of the ensemble, as well as in 2 nursery schools.

[27] Langer 1993

[28] Comparison with the training in folklore dance today has been made with the neighbouring Balkan countries in: The Folklore Dance Tradition Today. Based on materials from field studies in Bulgaria, Macedonia and Serbia during the period 2000 -2002. The text was delivered at the 9th Symposium on Folklore Issues, organized by the Institute for Folklore at the BulgarianAcademy of Science and St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, October 3-6, 2002, Sofia. Accepted for publishing by the Institute for Folklorein a scientific journal containing the materials from the symposium - 2003

[29] Lotman, Uspenski 1990,1:221

[30] Meletinski 1995, 1982:25-28, M.

The author

Education: 1991-1996 St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia. Major: Philosophy (Thesis: “The dancing man” - the philosophical concept of dance). Minor: Cultural Anthropology. 1989-1993 Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski. Major: Bulgarian Philology (Thesis: “The glowing embers of the fire-dancing - a magnetic magic circle”; The fire dance in the past and the fire walking of today. 1981-1983              Institute for Music and Choreography, Sofia. Subject: Bulgarian Folk Dances.Lecturer in Dance Folklore and Anthropology of Dance (New Bulgarian University, Sofia 1997-2000). Delivering lectures, workshops, in Bulgaria, the USA, Slovenia, Turkey, Serbia. Participation in international seminars, conferences, symposia (Bulgaria, Hungary, Switzerland, Slovenia, Romania, Serbia), Member of the Jury of the 16th International Folk Dance Competition, Bursa, Turkey, (July 2002). Organizing of international conferences on dance folklore, within the framework of the “Veliko Turnovo” International Folk Dance Festival (2001, 2002). Making choreography for different folk dance groups (in Bulgaria and abroad) 2001-2002. Grant holder of the Research Support Scheme, Open Society Institute, Prague. Research topic: Folk dance today – research and field studies in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Slovenia, Serbia, 2003. Working on the Ph.D. thesis on the topic ”The transformation of folk dances today” (based on field studies in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia for the period 2000-2002). CID member 2003.

Ms. Daniela Ivanova

 

 

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